Search for Abstracts using Keywords

43,407 Abstracts & Growing Daily. Sourced from the US National Library of Medicine.


A review of recent applications of curcumin as anti-invasive and antimetastatic agent in in vitro and in vivo and ex vivo studies as well as associated molecular mechanisms.

A huge number of compounds are widely distributed in nature and many of these possess medicinal/biological/pharmacological activity. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the rhizomes (underground stems) of Curcuma longa Linn (a member of the ginger family, commonly known as turmeric) is a culinary spice and therapeutic used in India for thousands of years to induce color and flavor in food as well as to treat a wide array of diseases. The origin of turmeric as spice and folklore medicine is so old that it is lost in legend. Curcumin has many beneficial pharmacological effects which includes, but are not limited with, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antiangiogenic, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and antidiabetic activities. Most importantly curcumin possesses immense antitumorigenic effect. It prevents tumor invasion and metastasis in a number of animal models, including models of lung, liver, stomach, colon, breast, esophageal cancer etc. Invasion and metastasis are considered as one of the hallmarks in cancer biology. The pertinent recent applications of curcumin as anti-invasive and antimetastatic agent in in vitro and in vivo and ex vivo studies as well as associated molecular mechanisms have been discussed in this review. Curcumin has also demonstrated the ability to improve patient outcomes in clinical trials.

Front Chem. 2014 ;2:113. Epub 2014 Dec 23. PMID: 25566531


Curcumin significantly decreased the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators NO, PGE2, and IL-6 by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

Inflammation and the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with numerous chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. An overwhelming amount of data indicates that curcumin, a polyphenol obtained from the Indian spice turmeric, Curcuma longa, is a potential chemopreventive agent for treating certain cancers and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the low bioavailability of curcumin, partly due to its low solubility and stability in the digestive tract, limits its therapeutic applications. Recent studies have demonstrated increased bioavailability and health-promoting effects of a novel solid lipid particle formulation of curcumin (Curcumin SLCP, Longvida(®)). The goal of this study was to evaluate the aqueous solubility and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of solid lipid curcumin particle (SLCP) formulations using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cultured murine macrophages. SLCPs treatment significantly decreased nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) levels at concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 μg/mL, and reduced interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Transient transfection experiments using a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) reporter construct indicate that SLCPs significantly inhibit the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in macrophages. Taken together, these results show that in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, SLCPs have improved solubility over unformulated curcumin, and significantly decrease the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators NO, PGE2, and IL-6 by inhibiting the activationof NF-κB.

J Med Food. 2015 Jul ;18(7):786-92. Epub 2014 Dec 9. PMID: 25490740


This review addresses certain aspects of NF-κB-related inflammatory response, its role in carcinogenesis and therapy benefits that may be gained through silencing NF-κB.

The mechanisms of beneficial preventive and therapeutic effects achieved by traditional and complementary medicine are currently being deciphered in molecular medicine. Curcumin, a yellow-colored polyphenol derived from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa), influences a wide variety of cellular processes through the reshaping of many molecular targets. One of them, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), represents a strong mediator of inflammation and, in a majority of systems, supports the pro-proliferative features of cancer cells. The application of various anticancer drugs, cytostatics, triggers signals which lead to an increase in cellular NF-κB activity. As a consequence, cancer cellsoften reshape their survival signaling pathways and, over time, become resistant to applied therapy. Curcumin was shown to be a strong inhibitor of NF-κB activity and its inhibitory effect on NF-κB related pathways often leads to cellular apoptotic response. All these facts, tested and confirmed in many different biological systems, have paved the way for research aimed to elucidate the potential beneficial effects of combining curcumin and various anti-cancer drugs in order to establish more efficient and less toxic cancer treatment modalities. This review addresses certain aspects of NF-κB-related inflammatory response, its role in carcinogenesis and therapy benefits that may be gained through silencing NF-κB by selectively combining curcumin and various anticancer drugs.

Curr Pharm Des. 2014 ;20(42):6682-96. PMID: 25341940


Ursolic acid could synergize with ionizing radiation against human gastric cancer cell lines.

Recent research has suggested that certain plant-derived polyphenols, i.e., ursolic acid (UA), which are reported to have antitumor activities, might be used to sensitize tumor cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting pathways leading to radiation therapy resistance. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects and possible mechanism of radiosensitization by UA in BGC-823 cell line from human adenocarcinoma gastric cancer in vitro. UA caused cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, and we used a sub-cytotoxicity concentration of UA to test radioenhancement efficacy with UA in gastric cancer. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic survival assay. Surviving fraction of the combined group with irradiation and sub-cytotoxicity UA significantly decreased compared with the irradiation group. The improved radiosensitization efficacy was associated with enhanced G2/M arrest, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), down-regulated Ki-67 level and improved apoptosis. In conclusion, as UA demonstrated potent antiproliferation effect and synergistic effect, it could be used as a potential drug sensitizer for the application of radiotherapy.

PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0133169. Epub 2015 Jul 15. PMID: 26177078


A brief overview of the evidence supporting anticancer activity of indian gooseberry extracts and suggests possible mechanisms for these actions.

There is a wealth of information emanating from both in vitro and in vivo studies indicating fruit extract of the Phyllanthus emblica tree, commonly referred to as Indian Gooseberries, has potent anticancer properties. The bioactivity in this extract is thought to be principally mediated by polyphenols, especially tannins and flavonoids. It remains unclear how polyphenols from Phyllanthus emblica can incorporate both cancer-preventative and antitumor properties. The antioxidant function of Phyllanthus emblica can account for some of the anticancer activity, but clearly other mechanisms are equally important. Herein, we provide a brief overview of the evidence supporting anticancer activity of Indian Gooseberry extracts, suggest possible mechanisms for these actions, and provide future directions that might be taken to translate these findings clinically.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:950890. Epub 2015 Jun 9. PMID: 26180601


Combining lower concentrations of EGCG and theaflavin results in greater cell death compared to either extract alone at the same concentration.

There is considerable interest in the potential of botanicals in preventing and/or alleviating chronic ailments. Among the most studied botanicals are compounds present in green and black teas. Nontoxic tea polyphenols are potent antioxidants, and they also modulate several signalling pathways and inhibit proteins such as MMP-9 or protein plasminogen activator system, making them very attractive potential therapeutics. One criticism of the prophylactic or therapeutic use of green or black tea polyphenols was presumably the poor bioavailability of these chemicals when ingested. However, studies have shown that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and theaflavin (TF) can be detected in the small and large intestine, liver, and prostate of experimental animals after consumption of tea extracts. In particular, a study was carried out on 20 men scheduled for prostatectomy, who were assigned to consume teas for five days before surgery. Tea polyphenols were detected in the prostate. This fact contradicts the common misconception of poor bioavailability of TF and EGCG and makes feasible the application of green or black tea polyphenols as prophylactic and therapeutic agents. Theaflavins and catechins seem to act on cancer cells largely through different pathways, so utilisation of both could offer synergistic anticancer effects, but so far no work has been done on the cumulative effects of EGCG and TF on prostate cancer. Therefore, in this study we have investigated if EGCG in combination with TF can reduce the rate of prostate cancer growth, and we have observed greater cell death compared to application of either TF or EGCG alone.

Cent Eur J Immunol. 2015 ;40(1):1-4. Epub 2015 Apr 22. PMID: 26155176


Artichoke polyphenols could be a promising dietary tool either in cancer chemoprevention or/and in cancer treatment as a nonconventional, adjuvant therapy.

Polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) have been shown to be potential chemopreventive and anticancer dietary compounds. High doses of polyphenolic extracts (AEs) induce apoptosis and decrease the invasive potential of the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB231. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AEs antiproliferative effects is not completely understood. We demonstrate that chronic and low doses of AEs treatment at sublethal concentrations suppress human breast cancer cell growth via a caspases-independent mechanism. Furthermore, AEs exposure induces a significant increase of senescence-associatedβ-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining and upregulation of tumour suppressor genes, p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1/Waf1) in MDA-MB231 cells. AEs treatment leads to epigenetic alterations in cancer cells, modulating DNA hypomethylation and lysine acetylation levels in total proteins. Cell growth arrest correlates with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AEs treated breast cancer cells. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuates the antiproliferative effect. These findings demonstrate that chronic AEs treatment inhibits breast cancer cell growth via the inductionof premature senescence through epigenetic and ROS-mediated mechanisms. Our results suggest that artichoke polyphenols could be a promising dietary tool either in cancer chemoprevention or/and in cancer treatment as a nonconventional, adjuvant therapy.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:363827. Epub 2015 Jun 9. PMID: 26180585


This study demonstrates a novel role for natural occurring polyphenols as PDE inhibitors that enhance pancreatic β-cell function.

Resveratrol (RES) and curcumin (CUR) are polyphenols that are found in fruits and turmeric, and possess medicinal properties that are beneficial in various diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results from recent studies have indicated that their therapeutic properties can be attributed to their anti-inflammatory effects. Owing to reports stating that they protect againstβ-cell dysfunction, we studied their mechanism(s) of action in β-cells. In T2DM, cAMP plays a critical role in glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion as well as overall pancreatic β-cell health. A potential therapeutic target in the management of T2DM lies in regulating the activity of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which degrade cAMP. Both RES and CUR have been reported to act as PDE inhibitors in various cell types, but it remains unknown if they do so in pancreatic β-cells. In our current study, we found that both RES (0.1-10 μmol/l) and CUR (1-100 pmol/l)-regulated insulinsecretion under glucose-stimulated conditions. Additionally, treating β-cell lines and human islets with these polyphenols led to increased intracellular cAMP levels in a manner similar to 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a classic PDE inhibitor. When we investigated the effects of RES and CUR on PDEs, we found that treatment significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of most of the 11 PDE isozymes, including PDE3B, PDE8A, and PDE10A, which have been linked previously to regulation of insulin secretion in islets. Furthermore, RES and CUR inhibited PDE activity in a dose-dependent manner inβ-cell lines and human islets. Collectively, we demonstrate a novel role for natural-occurring polyphenols as PDE inhibitors that enhance pancreatic β-cell function.

J Endocrinol. 2014 Nov ;223(2):107-17. PMID: 25297556


Curcumin in combination with retinoic acid sensitizes RA-resistant TNBC cells by suppressing FABP5/PPARβ/δ pathway, and promotes the growth inhibitory effect of RA.

BACKGROUND: A major obstacle in the use of retinoid therapy in cancer is the resistance to this agent in tumors. Retinoic acid facilitates the growth of mammary carcinoma cells which express high levels of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). This protein delivers retinoic acid to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorβ/δ (PPARβ/δ) that targets genes involved in cell proliferation and survival. One approach to overcome resistance of mammary carcinoma cells to retinoic acid is to target and suppress the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of curcumin, a polyphenol extract from the plant Curcuma longa, on the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway in retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells.METHODS: Cell viability and proliferation of triple negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MD-MB-468) treated with curcumin and/or retinoic was analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ in these cells treated with curcumin was examined by Western Blotting analysis and Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Effect of curcumin and retinoic acid on PPARβ/δ target genes, PDK1and VEGF-A were also examined using qRT-PCR. Western Blotting was utilized to examine the protein expression level of the p65 subunit of NF-κB.RESULTS: Treatment of retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells with curcumin sensitized these cells to retinoic acid mediated growth suppression, as well as suppressed incorporation of BrdU. Further studies demonstrated that curcumin showed a marked reduction in the expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ. We provide evidence that curcumin suppresses p65, a transcription factor known to regulate FABP5. The combination of curcumin with retinoic acid suppressed PPARβ/δ target genes, VEGF-A and PDK1.CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin suppresses the expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ in triple negative mammary carcinoma cells. By targeting the FABP5/PPARβ/δ pathway, curcumin prevents the delivery of retinoic acid to PPARβ/δ and suppresses retinoic acid-induced PPARβ/δ target gene, VEGF-A. Our data demonstrates that suppression of the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway by curcumin sensitizes retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells to retinoic acid mediated growth suppression.

BMC Cancer. 2014 ;14:724. Epub 2014 Sep 27. PMID: 25260874


Low dose Resveratrol and Curcumin enhances the Centchroman action through ROS mediated JNK/p38 as well as mitochondrial pathway in MCF-7 cells.

Polyphenols as"sensitizers"together with cytotoxic drugs as"inducers"cooperate to trigger apoptosis in various cancer cells. Hence, their combination having similar mode of mechanism may be a novel approach to enhance the efficacy of inducers. Additionally, this will also enable to achieve the physiological concentrations facilitating significant increase in the activity at concentrations which the compound can individually provide. Here we propose that polyphenols (Resveratrol (RES) and Curcumin (CUR)) pre-treatment may sensitize MCF-7/MDA MB-231 (Human Breast Cancer Cells, HBCCs) to Centchroman (CC, antineoplastic agent). 6 h pre-treated cells with 10µM RES/CUR and 100 µM RES/30 µM CUR doses, followed by 10 µM CC for 18 h were investigated for Ser-167 ER-phosphorylation, cell cycle arrest, redox homeostasis, stress activated protein kinase (SAPKs: JNK and p38 MAPK) pathways and downstream apoptosis effectors. Low dose RES/CUR enhances the CCaction through ROS mediated JNK/p38 as well as mitochondrial pathway in MCF-7 cells. However, RES/CUR sensitization enhanced apoptosis in p53 mutant MDA MB-231 cells without/with involvement of ROS mediated JNK/p38 adjunct to Caspase-9. Contrarily, through high dose sensitization in CC treated cells, the parameters remained unaltered as in polyphenols alone. We conclude that differential sensitization of HBCCs with low dose polyphenol augments apoptotic efficacy of CC. This may offer a novel approach to achieve enhanced action of CC with concomitant reduction of side effects enabling improvedmanagement of hormone-dependent breast cancer.

PLoS One. 2012 ;7(6):e37736. Epub 2012 Jun 29. PMID: 22768036


These results indicate a potential role of urolithin A as a chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer.

PURPOSE: Walnuts contain several bioactive compounds, including pedunculagin, a polyphenol metabolized by microbiota to form urolithins, namely urolithin A (UA). The aim of this study was to determine gene expression changes in prostate cancer cells after incubation with UA.METHODS: We performed a genomic analysis to study the effect of UA on LNCaP prostate cells. Cells were incubated with 40 µM UA for 24 h, and RNA was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix Human Genome U219 array. Microarray results were analyzed using GeneSpring v13 software. Differentially expressed genes (p  2) were used to perform biological association networks. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and apoptosis measured by the rhodamine method and by caspases 3 and 7 activation. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay.RESULTS: We identified two nodes, FN-1 and CDKN1A, among the differentially expressed genes upon UA treatment. CDKN1A was validated, its mRNA and protein levels were significantly up-regulated, and the promoter activation measured by luciferase. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase in G1-phase, and we also observed an induction of apoptosis and caspases 3 and 7 activation upon UA treatment.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a potential role of UA as a chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer.

Eur J Nutr. 2015 May 12. Epub 2015 May 12. PMID: 25962506


Resveratrol protects H9c2 cells against DOX induced ER stress through ER stabilization, and more specifically through the activation of the Sirt1 pathway, thereby leading to cardiac cell survival.

Treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the major causes of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity and is therefore, the principal limiting factor in the effectiveness of chemotherapy for cancer patients. DOX‑induced heart failure is thought to result from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Resveratrol (RV), a polyphenol antioxidant found in red wine, has been shown to play a cardioprotective role. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of RV on DOX‑induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells. We hypothesized that RV would protect H9c2 cells against DOX‑induced ER stress and subsequent cell death through the activation of the Sirt1 pathway. Our results demonstrated that the decrease observed in the viability of the H9c2 cells following exposure to DOX was accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of the ER stress‑related proteins, glucose‑regulatedprotein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). However, we found that RV downregulated the expression of ER stress marker protein in the presence of DOX and restored the viability of the H9c2 cells. Exposure to RV or DOX alone only slightly increased the protein expression of Sirt1, whereas a significant increase in Sirt1 protein levels was observed in the cells treated with both RV and DOX. The Sirt1 inhibitor, nicotinamide (NIC), partially neutralized the effects of RV on the expression of Sirt1 in the DOX‑treated cells and completely abolished the effects of RV on the expression of GRP78 and CHOP. The findings of our study suggest that RV protects H9c2 cells against DOX‑induced ER stress through ER stabilization, and more specifically through the activation of the Sirt1 pathway, thereby leading to cardiac cell survival.

Int J Mol Med. 2015 Jul 20. Epub 2015 Jul 20. PMID: 26202177


Noni extracts strongly inhibited the proliferation and increased apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells.

Morinda citrifolia L. (NONI) fruits have been used for thousands of years for the treatment of many health problems including cancer, cold, diabetes, flu, hypertension, and pain. Plant extracts have reported several therapeutic benefits, but extraction of individual compound from the extract often exhibits limited clinical utility as the synergistic effect of various natural ingredients gets lost. They generally constitute polyphenols and flavonoids. Studies have suggested that these phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, display high antioxidant properties, which help to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that Noni fruits have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-dementia, liver-protective, anticancer, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects. Till date about 7 in vitro cancer studies have been done, but a detailed in vitro study including cell cycle and caspase activation assay on breast cancer cell line has not been done. In the present study different Noni fruit fractions have tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) and one non-cancer cell line HEK-293 (Human embryonic kidney). Out of which ethylacetate extract showed a higher order of in vitro anticancer activity profile. The ethylacetate extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HEK-293 cell lines with IC50 values of 25, 35, 60 µg/ml respectively. The extract showed increase in apoptotic cells in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 and G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-231 cells. Noni extract also decreases the intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential.

Drug Res (Stuttg). 2015 Jul 9. Epub 2015 Jul 9. PMID: 26158795


These results demonstrate that enhanced expression of miR-126 increased the sensitivity of osteosarcoma cells to EGCG through induction of apoptosis.

BACKGROUND: miR-126 plays an important role in the proliferation, invasion, migration, and chemotherapeutics resistance in cancer. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), as the major polyphenolic constituent present in green tea, is a promising anticancer agent. However, the role of miR-126 in EGCG anticancer remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of miR-126 and EGCG on cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution of osteosarcoma cells and the sensitization of miR-126 on osteosarcoma cells to EGCG.METHODS: The cell viability, apoptosis and cycle distribution were analyzed using MTT assay and flow cytometry.RESULTS: Our results showed that EGCG (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 g/L) suppresses proliferation of osteosarcoma MG63 and U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner and the inhibitory effects of 0.05 g/L EGCG on U2OS cells were roughly equivalent to 20 μM cisplatin (DDP); miR-126 could promote apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in U2OScells but without significant effects on cell cycle G1 phase arrest; EGCG suppressed proliferation of U2OS cells through induction of cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptotic death; overexpression of miR-126 enhanced the inhibitory effects of EGCG on proliferation in U2OS cells via promotion of apoptosis.CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that enhanced expression of miR-126 increased the sensitivity of osteosarcoma cells to EGCG through induction of apoptosis.

World J Surg Oncol. 2014 ;12:383. Epub 2014 Dec 16. PMID: 25510179


An açai polyphenolic extract had antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities in colon cancer cells and can be effective as natural colon cancer chemopreventive agent.

This study aimed to evaluate the cell growth inhibition activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) polyphenolic extract against colon cancer HT-29 and SW-480 cells and the nonmalignant CCD-18Co colon fibroblast cells. Results showed that açai polyphenolic extract (5-20 mg/L) inhibited preferentially the growth of SW-480 cells with no toxicity in CCD-18Co cells, andthis was accompanied by reduction of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The mechanisms involved in SW-480 cell growth-inhibition by açai polyphenolic extract included the downregulation of NF-κB proinflammatory transcription factor and the nuclear factor-kappa B targets intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, prooncogenic specificity proteins (Sp) were downregulated as well as Sp-targets Bcl-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and survivin. This was accompanied by activation of mitochondrial proapoptotic pathway involving increase of cytochrome c, cleavage of caspase-3, and decrease of PARP-1. Results strongly suggest that açai polyphenolic extract has antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities in colon cancer cells and can be effective as natural colon cancer chemopreventive agents.

Nutr Cancer. 2014 ;66(8):1394-405. Epub 2014 Oct 20. PMID: 25329001


Curcumin inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in osteoclastoma cell through suppression of MMP-9 and NF-κB, and activation JNK signaling pathways.

Curcumin is a polyphenol compound extracted from ginger plant, turmeric, commonly used in a variety of food coloring and flavoring additives. Curcumin has many effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-microbial effects. However, the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effect of curcumin on human osteoclastoma (Giant cell tumor, GCT) cells remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of curcumin on proliferation and apoptosis of GCT cells and its related mechanisms. In our study, cell viability, cellular apoptosis and caspase-3 activity of GCT cells were analyzed using 3.3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry (FCM) assay and commercial kits, respectively. Next, MMP-9 gene expression quantity, NF-κB activity and JNK protein expression of GCT cells were tested with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), commercial kits and western blotting assay, respectively. Firstly, MMP-9, NF-κB and JNK inhibitors were added into GCT cells and which was researched the mechanism of curcumin on human GCT cells. In this study, the efficacy of curcumin reduced cell viability, induced cellular apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activity of GCT cells. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the MMP-9 gene expression quantity and NF-κB activity, and activated JNK protein expression in GCT cells. Meanwhile,down-regulation of MMP-9 gene expression quantity and NF-κB activity could promote the anti-cancer effect of curcumin on cell viability of GCT cells. Interesting, down-regulation of JNK protein expression could also reversed the anti-cancer effect of curcumin on cell viability of GCT cells. Takentogether, our results suggest that curcumin inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in osteoclastoma cell through suppression of MMP-9 and NF-κB, and activation JNK signaling pathways.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 ;8(6):6037-45. Epub 2015 Jun 1. PMID: 26261481


This review is focused on the relationship between flavonoids and cancer, with special emphasis on the role of quercetin in anticancer treatment.

Cancer is a problem of global importance; since the incidence is increasing worldwide and therapeutic options are generally limited. Thus, it becomes imperative to find new therapeutic targets as well as new molecules with therapeutic potential for tumors. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that may be potential therapeutic agents. Several studies have shown that these compounds have a higher anticancer potential. Among the flavonoids in the human diet, quercetin is one of the most important. In the last decades, several anticancer properties of quercetin have been described, such as cell signaling, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant effects, growth suppression. In fact, it is now well known that quercetin has diverse biological effects, inhibiting multiple enzymes involved in cell proliferation, as well as, in signal transduction pathways. On the other hand, there are also studies reporting potential synergistic effects when combined quercetin with chemotherapeutic agents or radiotherapy. In fact, several studies which aim to explore the anticancer potential of these combined treatments have already been published, the majority with promising results. Actually it is well known that quercetin can act on the chemo sensitization and radio sensitization but also as chemo protective and radio protective, protecting normal cells of the side effects that result from chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which obviously provides notable advantages in their use in anticancer treatment. Thus, all these data indicate that quercetin may have a key role in anticancer treatment. In this context, this review is focused on the relationship between flavonoids and cancer, with special emphasis on the role of quercetin.

Curr Med Chem. 2015 Aug 12. Epub 2015 Aug 12. PMID: 26264923


Our findings highlight TIMP-3 induction as a key epigenetic event modulated by GTPs in restoring the MMP:TIMP balance to delay breast cancer progression and invasion.

Aberrant epigenetic silencing of the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) gene that negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. In the present study, we demonstrate that green tea polyphenols (GTP) and its major constituent, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) mediate epigenetic induction of TIMP-3 levels and play a key role in suppressing invasiveness and gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in breast cancer cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with 20µM EGCG and 10 µg/mL GTP for 72 h significantly induces TIMP-3 mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, investigations into the molecular mechanism revealed that TIMP-3 repression in breast cancer cells is mediated by epigenetic silencing mechanism(s) involving increased activity of the enhancer ofzeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), independent of promoter DNA hypermethylation. Treatment of breast cancer cells with GTP and EGCG significantly reduced EZH2 and class I HDAC protein levels. Furthermore, transcriptional activation of TIMP-3 was found to be associatedwith decreased EZH2 localization and H3K27 trimethylation enrichment at the TIMP-3 promoter with a concomitant increase in histone H3K9/18 acetylation. Our findings highlight TIMP-3 induction as a key epigenetic event modulated by GTPs in restoring the MMP:TIMP balance to delay breast cancer progression and invasion.

Mol Carcinog. 2015 Jun ;54(6):485-99. Epub 2014 Jan 31. PMID: 24481780


This reviews the molecular mechanisms by which the bioactive compounds can inhibit carcinogenesis by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities.

Extensive research over the past several decades has identified numerous dietary and phytochemical compounds that have chemopreventive potential and could represent an important source of anti-cancer lead molecules. In this scenario several nutritional factors have attracted considerable attention as modifiable risk factor in the prevention of breast cancer, the most frequently diagnosed cancer and a major cause of death among women worldwide. There is an immediate need for more effective and less toxic therapeutic and preventive strategies for breast cancers able also to counteract the recurrent phenomenon of resistance to hormonal and targeted therapy that represent the first-line treatment in the management of breast cancer patients. The present review focuses on chemopreventive and anti-cancer activities of different bioactive compounds obtained from dietary sources such as Omega-3 fatty acids, naturally present in fish, Resveratrol (3,5,40-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grapes and Epigallocatechin Gallate, a polyphenolic compound found in green tea, or purified from medicinal plant (Oldenlandia Diffusa) and fruits (Ziziphus Jujube) highlighting their potential use in breast cancer treatment. Herein, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which the bioactive compounds can inhibit carcinogenesis by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities, and inducing antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in different breast cancer cell lines. Understanding the mechanism of action of dietary compounds or traditionally used herbs having potential preventive and therapeutic effects on cancer may provide a rationale for further translational studies. This review emphasizes the importance, in the next future, of a proper scientific validation of these natural bioactive compounds for clinical use in the therapeutic portfolio for breast cancer.

Mini Rev Med Chem. 2015 Jul 9. Epub 2015 Jul 9. PMID: 26156544


Low doses of PPE exert potent anti-proliferative effects in different human cancer cells with MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells been the most responsive cells.

BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants, especially examples rich in polyphenolic compounds, have been suggested to be chemopreventive on account of antioxidative properties. Punica granatum (PG) (pomegranate) is a well known fruit in this context, but its cytotoxicity in cancer cells has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the antiproliferative properties of a peel extract of PG from Iran in different human cancer cells.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanolic extract of pomegranate peel (PPE) was prepared. Total phenolic content(TPC) and total flavonoid conetnt (TFC) were determined by colorimetric assays. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The cytotoxicity of different doses of PPE (0, 5, 20, 100, 250, 500, 1000μg/ml) was evaluated by MTT assays with A549 (lung non small cell cancer), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), SKOV3 (ovarian cancer), and PC-3 (prostate adenocarcinoma) cells.RESULTS: Significant (P

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015 ;16(14):5697-701. PMID: 26320438


Resveratrol may have therapeutic potential against myeloproliferative neoplasms associated with the aberrant activation of the JAK2 pathway.

SCOPE: Resveratrol is a natural occurring polyphenol with several health promoting activities, including anticancer potential. Here, we analyzed the cytotoxic effects of resveratrol against malignant cells characterized by aberrant activation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2).METHODS AND RESULTS: Cell-cycle analysis, proliferation, apoptosis, and Western blotting assays were performed to study the effect of resveratrol on malignant cells exhibiting an excessive activation of the JAK2 pathway secondary to the JAK2(V617F) mutation. Resveratrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in JAK2(V617F) mutant tumor cells and its selectivity was 1.5-6.9 times greater than that observed in other tumor cells without the JAK2(V617F) mutation. In addition, resveratrol inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2, and Tyk2 and their downstream mediators, including STAT3 and STAT5. In primary cultures, resveratrol treatment inhibited erythroid progenitor colony formation in blood samples obtained from JAK2(V617F) polycythemia vera patients. Moreover, resveratrol synergized with the selective JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, eliminating tumor cells with the JAK2 mutation.CONCLUSION: Resveratrol may have therapeutic potential against myeloproliferative neoplasms associated with the aberrant activation of the JAK2 pathway.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Aug 27. Epub 2015 Aug 27. PMID: 26375873


This review summarizes the current knowledge on the effect of curcumin in the treatment and prevention of inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers.

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenolic compound, is a component of Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric. It is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-lipidemic agent and has recently been shown to modulate several diseases via epigenetic regulation. Many recent studies have demonstrated the role of epigenetic inactivation of pivotal genes that regulate human pathologies, such as neurocognitive disorders, inflammation, obesity, and cancers. Epigenetic changes involve changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, or altered microRNA expression patterns which are known to be interconnected and play a key role in tumor progression and failure of conventional chemotherapy. The majority of epigenetic changes are influenced by lifestyle and diets. In this regard, dietary phytochemicals as dietary supplements have emerged as a promising source that are able to reverse these epigenetic alterations, to actively regulate gene expression and molecular targets that are known to promote tumorigenesis, and also to prevent age-related diseases through epigenetic modifications. There have been several studies which reported the role of curcumin as an epigenetic regulator in neurological disorders, inflammation, and in diabetes apart from cancers. The epigenetic regulatory roles of curcumin include (1) inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), which has been well defined from the recent studies on its function as a DNA hypomethylating agent; (2) regulation of histone modifications via regulation of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs); and (3) regulation of micro RNAs (miRNA). This review summarizes the current knowledge on the effect of curcumin in the treatment and/or prevention of inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers by regulating histone deacetylases, histone acetyltransferases, and DNA methyltransferases.

Curr Pharmacol Rep. 2015 Apr ;1(2):129-139. Epub 2015 Jan 30. PMID: 26457241


Resveratrol exerts bactericidal activity against H. pylori and is a powerful antioxidant, thus acting as a tumor preventive agent.

Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Late diagnosis and classical therapeutic approaches such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy make this disease a still threatening tumor. Genetic asset, environmental stress, dietary habit and infections caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are the major causes concurring to GC initiation. A common mechanism is induction of radicals resulting in gastric mucosal injury. A regular food intake of antioxidant and radical scavenging agents has been proposed to exert protection against tumorigenesis. Resveratrol belongs to the polyphenol flavonoids class of antioxidants produced by a restricted number of plants. Resveratrol exerts bactericidal activity against H. pylori and is a powerful antioxidant, thus acting as a tumor preventive agent. Resveratrol intracellular signaling results in growth arrest and apoptosis, so that it can be directed against tumor progression. Resveratrol therapeutic potential against GC initiation and progression are reviewed here.

World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct 7 ;21(37):10636-43. PMID: 26457023


Polyphenols and sterols from virgin argan oil have antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on prostate cancer cell lines.

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study has to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of polyphenols and sterols extracted from the virgin argan oil on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3).METHODS: Cytotoxicity, anti-proliferative effects and nuclear morphological changes of cells were analyzed after treatment with sterols and polyphenols. The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME(2)) as positive control.RESULTS: Polyphenols and sterols of virgin argan oil and 2ME(2) exhibited a dose-response cytotoxic effect and antiproliferative action on the three tested cell lines. The antiproliferative effect of polyphenols was similar for the DU145 and LNCaP cell lines; the GI(50) (defined as the concentration inhibiting growth by 50% in comparison with the control) was respectively 73 and 70microg/ml. The antiproliferative effect of sterols was 46 and 60microg/ml as GI(50) for the DU145 and LNCaP cell lines. For the PC3 cell line, the best antiproliferative effect was obtained by argan sterols with GI(50)=43microg/ml. On the other hand, the nuclear morphology analyses have shown an increased proportion of pro-apoptotic of nuclei in LNCaP cell treated with IC(50) of polyphenols or sterols compared to control cells. Our results show for the first time the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of polyphenols and sterols extracted from virgin argan oil and confirm the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 2ME(2) on prostate cancer cell lines.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that argan oil may be interesting in the development of new strategies for prostate cancer prevention.

Cancer Detect Prev. 2007 ;31(1):64-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. PMID: 17174037


This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea in order to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink that consumes by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids which exhibit a range of promising pharmacological property. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK may be the basis for how dose black tea prevent and cure cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea, however its effect under human trails is uncertain, though more clinical experiments are needed atmolecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea in order to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015 Nov 11:0. Epub 2015 Nov 11. PMID: 26561007


Selected stone fruit genotypes can be added to the list of fruits with cytotoxic effects against breast cancer cells while not affecting normal cells.

Polyphenolic extracts and fractions of selected peach and plum genotypes were evaluated for cell viability and antiproliferation activity in vitro against an estrogen independent MDA-MB-435 and estrogen dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and one non-cancerous breast line MCF-10A. All extracts showed a phenolic dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-435, weak activity against MCF-7 and small or no activity against MCF-10A. Genotype phenolic profiles showed varying degrees of polyphenolic mixtures. Fractionation of peach BY00P6653 extracts gave 4 fractions, with fraction F-I (caffeic acid derivatives) showing a strong activity against MDA-MB-435 followed by fraction F-II (anthocyanins). Induced-apoptosis by F-I on MDA-MB-435 was confirmed by Tunnel nuclear staining of cells with apoptotic DNA fragmentation (0-100μg/mL) with no effects in normal cells (0-200 μg/mL). Selected stone fruit genotypes can be added to the list of fruits with cytotoxic effects against breast cancer cells while not affecting normal cells.

Food Chem. 2014 Dec 1 ;164:363-70. Epub 2014 May 20. PMID: 24996346


Curcumin attenuates all stages of tumour progression and provides chemosensitisation to cisplatin and protection from its ototoxic adverse effects.

BACKGROUND: In oncology, an emerging paradigm emphasises molecularly targeted approaches for cancer prevention and therapy and the use of adjuvant chemotherapeutics to overcome cisplatin limitations. Owing to their safe use, some polyphenols, such as curcumin, modulate important pathways or molecular targets in cancers. This paper focuses on curcumin as an adjuvant molecule to cisplatin by analysing its potential implications on the molecular targets, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), in tumour progression and cisplatin resistance in vitro and the adverse effect ototoxicity in vivo.METHODS: The effects of curcumin and/or cisplatin treatment have been evaluated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma as well as in a rat model of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by using immunofluorescence, western blot, and functional and morphological analysis.RESULTS: This study demonstrates that curcumin attenuates all stages of tumour progression (survival, proliferation) and, by targeting pSTAT3 and Nrf-2 signalling pathways, provides chemosensitisation to cisplatin in vitro and protection from its ototoxic adverse effects in vivo.CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that curcumin can be used as an efficient adjuvant to cisplatin cancer therapy. This treatment strategy in head and neck cancer could mediate cisplatin chemoresistance by modulating therapeutic targets (STAT3 and Nrf2) and, at the same time, reduce cisplatin-related ototoxic adverse effects.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 15 October 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.359

Br J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15. Epub 2015 Oct 15. PMID: 26469832


This review summarizes in vitro data regarding the interaction of berry polyphenols with the specific receptors and the mechanisms by which they induce cell death.

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Many women have become more aware of the benefits of increasing fruit consumption, as part of a healthy lifestyle, for the prevention of cancer. The mechanisms by which fruits, including berries, prevent breast cancer can be partially explained by exploring their interactions with pathways known to influence cell proliferation and evasion of cell-death. Two receptor pathways, estrogen receptor (ER) and tyrosine kinase receptors, especially the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, are drivers of cell proliferation and play a significant role in the development of both primary and recurrent breast cancer. There is strong evidence to show that several phytochemicals present in berries such as cyanidin, delphinidin, quercetin, kaempferol, ellagic acid, resveratrol, and pterostilbene interact with and alter the effects of these pathways. Furthermore, they also induce cell death (apoptosis and autophagy) via their influence on kinase signaling. This review summarizes in vitro data regarding the interaction of berry polyphenols with the specific receptors and the mechanisms by which they induce cell death. This paper also presents in vivo data of primary breast cancer prevention by individual compounds and whole berries. Finally, a possible role for berries and berry compounds in the prevention of breast cancer and a perspective on the areas that require further research are presented.

J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Jun 13 ;60(23):5693-708. Epub 2012 Feb 22. PMID: 22300613


Resveratrol sensitizes glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide by inducing cell apoptosis and promoting differentiation.

Glioblastoma-initiating cells play crucial roles in the origin, growth, and recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme. The elimination of glioblastoma-initiating cells is believed to be a key strategy for achieving long-term survival of glioblastoma patients due to the highly resistant property of glioblastoma‑initiating cells to temozolomide. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has been widely studied as a promising candidate for cancer prevention and treatment. Whether resveratrol could enhance the sensitivity of glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide therapy has not yet been reported. Here, using patient-derived glioblastoma-initiating cell lines, we found that resveratrol sensitized glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that resveratrol enhanced glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide-induced apoptosis throughDNA double‑stranded breaks/pATM/pATR/p53 pathway activation, and promoted glioblastoma-initiating cell differentiation involving p-STAT3 inactivation. Our results propose that temozolomide and resveratrol combination strategy may be effective in the management of glioblastoma patients, particularly for those patients who have been present with a high abundance of glioblastoma-initiating cells in their tumors and show slight responsiveness to temozolomide.

Oncol Rep. 2015 Oct 23. Epub 2015 Oct 23. PMID: 26498391


Nuts and their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

Maturitas. 2015 Nov 2. Epub 2015 Nov 2. PMID: 26586104


A review of the biological and therapeutic activities, and anticancer properties of curcumin.

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Curcumin has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine, as it is nontoxic and exhibits a variety of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activities. Recently, certain studies have indicated that curcumin may exert anticancer effects in a variety of biological pathways involved in mutagenesis, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, cell cycle regulation and metastasis. The present study reviewed previous studies in the literature, which support the therapeutic activity of curcumin in cancer. In addition, the present study elucidated a number of the challenges concerning the use of curcumin as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent. All the studies reviewed herein suggest that curcumin is able to exert anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antioxidative, hepatoprotective and antitumor activities, particularly against cancers of the liver, skin, pancreas, prostate, ovary, lung and head neck, as well as having a positive effect in the treatment of arthritis.

Exp Ther Med. 2015 Nov ;10(5):1615-1623. Epub 2015 Sep 17. PMID: 26640527


Theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate might serve as a potential anti-angiogenic agent for cancer treatment.

Theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate (TF3) is a black tea polyphenol produced from polymerization and oxidization of the green tea ployphenols epicatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) during fermentation of fresh tea leaves. TF3 has been reported to have anticancer properties. However, the effect of TF3 on tumor angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In the present study, TF3 was verified to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Compared with EGCG, TF3 was more potent. TF3 inhibited human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cell-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cell model and in chick chorioallantoic membrane model. TF3 reduced tumor angiogenesis by downregulating HIF-1α and VEGF. One of the mechanisms was TF3 inactivated Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway and Akt/c-Myc pathway. Besides, TF3 suppressed the cleavage of Notch-1, subsequently decreased the expression of c-Myc, HIF-1α and VEGF, and finally the impaired cancer cells induced angiogenesis. Nevertheless, TF3 did not have any influence on the MAPK pathways. Taken together, these findings suggest that TF3 might serve as a potential anti-angiogenic agent for cancer treatment.

Int J Oncol. 2015 Nov 20. Epub 2015 Nov 20. PMID: 26648098


Resveratrol treatment increased the cytotoxic activity of Cisplatin against the growth of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRC cells.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Cisplatin (CIS) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in current use and it has proven efficacy against various human malignancies. However, its clinical usefulness has been restricted by detrimental side effects, including nephrotoxicity and myelosuppression. The aim of the present study was to attempt to decrease the required dose of CIS, in order to minimize its side effects, and increase its capability to arrest, delay or reverse carcinogenesis. In addition, the present study aimed to ameliorate CIS-resistance in CRC cells, using the natural compound resveratrol (RSVL). RSVL (3,4', 5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenol present in the roots of white hellebore (Veratrum grandiflorum O. Loes) and extracted from>70 other plant species. RSVL can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and it has been shown to be active in the regulation of numerous cellular events associated with carcinogenesis. The present study evaluated the effects of RSVL on sensitization of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRC cells to the action of cisplatin. The CIS was administered at a dose of 5 and 20µg/ml, and CIS cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle and cisplatin cellular uptake were examined in the presence and absence of RSVL (15 µg/ml). RSVL treatment showed anti-proliferative effects and enhanced the cytotoxic effects of cis against the growth of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRCcells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 4.20 µg/ml and 4.72 µg/ml respectively. RSVL also induced a significant increase in the early apoptosis fraction and enhanced the subsequent apoptotic effects of CIS. The cellular uptake of CIS was significantly increased in the presence of RSVL, as compared with CIS treatment alone, and RSVL treatment sensitized the CIS-resistant HCT-116 cells. In conclusion, RSVL treatment increased the cytotoxic activity of CIS against the growth of both parent and CIS-resistant HCT-116 CRC cells.

Mol Med Rep. 2015 Jul ;12(1):1368-74. Epub 2015 Mar 19. PMID: 25815689


Caffeic acid phenethyl ester augmented tamoxifen cytotoxicity via multiple mechanisms.

Although Tamoxifen (TAM) is one of the most widely used drugs in managing breast cancer, many women still relapse after long-term therapy. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a polyphenolic compound present in many medicinal plants and in propolis. The present study examined the effect of CAPE on TAM cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of TAM and/or CAPE for 48 h. This novel combination exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 cells via induction of apoptotic machinery with activation of caspases and DNA fragmentation, along with downregulation of Bcl-2 and Beclin 1 expression levels. However, the mammalian microtubule-associated protein light chain LC 3-II level was unchanged. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was also decreased, whereas levels of glutathione and nitric oxide were increased. In conclusion, CAPE augmented TAM cytotoxicity via multiple mechanisms, providing a novel therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatmentthat can overcome resistance and lower toxicity. This effect provides a rationale for further investigation of this combination.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016 ;2016:3017108. Epub 2015 Nov 30. PMID: 26697130


A review of walnut polyphenols in health maintenance and disease prevention.

Walnuts are commonly found in our diet and have been recognized for their nutritious properties for a long time. Traditionally, walnuts have been known for their lipid profile which has been linked to a wide array of biological properties and health-promoting effects. In addition to essential fatty acids, walnuts contain a variety of other bioactive compounds such as, vitamin E and polyphenols. Among common foods and beverages, walnuts represent one of the most important sources of polyphenols, hence, their effect over human health warrants attention. The main polyphenol in walnuts is pedunculagin, an ellagitannin. After consumption, ellagitannins are hydrolyzed to release ellagic acid, which is converted by gut microflora to urolithin A and other derivatives, such as urolithins B, C and D. Ellagitannins possess well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivity and several studies have assessed the potential role of ETs against disease initiation and progression, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize current available information relating to the potential effect of walnut polyphenols in health maintenance and disease prevention.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015 Dec 29:0. Epub 2015 Dec 29. PMID: 26713565


Chemoprevention of breast cancer by dietary polyphenols.

The review will discuss in detail the effects of polyphenols on breast cancer, including both the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of these natural compounds. First, we focus on the characterization of the main classes of polyphenols and then on in vitro and in vivo experiments carried out in breast cancer models. Since the therapeutic effects of the administration of a single type of polyphenol might be limited because of the reduced bioavailability of these drugs, investigations on combination of several polyphenols or polyphenols with conventional therapy will also be discussed. In addition, we present recent data focusing on clinical trials with polyphenols and new approaches with nanoparticles in breast cancer. Besides the clinical and translational findings this review systematically summarizes our current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer effects of polyphenols, which are related to apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, plasma membrane receptors, signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms. At the same time the effects of polyphenols on primary tumor, metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer are discussed. The increasing enthusiasm regarding the combination of polyphenols and conventional therapy in breast cancer might lead to additional efforts to motivate further research in this field.

Molecules. 2015 ;20(12):22578-620. Epub 2015 Dec 17. PMID: 26694341


Experimental data supports the bright future of natural polyphenols as anticancer tools.

Cancer onset and progression have been linked to oxidative stress by increasing DNA mutations or inducing DNA damage, genome instability, and cell proliferation and therefore antioxidant agents could interfere with carcinogenesis. It is well known that conventional radio-/chemotherapies influence tumour outcome through ROS modulation. Since these antitumour treatments have important side effects, the challenge is to develop new anticancer therapeutic strategies more effective and less toxic for patients. To this purpose, many natural polyphenols have emerged as very promising anticancer bioactive compounds. Beside their well-known antioxidant activities, several polyphenols target epigenetic processes involved in cancer development through the modulation of oxidative stress. An alternative strategy to the cytotoxic treatment is an approach leading to cytostasis through the induction of therapy-induced senescence. Many anticancer polyphenols cause cellular growth arrest through the induction of a ROS-dependent premature senescence and are considered promising antitumour therapeutic tools. Furthermore, one of the most innovative and interesting topics is the evaluation of efficacy of prooxidant therapies on cancer stem cells (CSCs). Several ROS inducers-polyphenols can impact CSCs metabolisms and self-renewal related pathways. Natural polyphenol roles, mainly in chemoprevention and cancer therapies, are described and discussed in the light of the current literature data.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016 ;2016:6475624. Epub 2015 Nov 16. PMID: 26649142


Turkish propolis is capable of reducing cancer cell proliferation in A549 cells.

Cancer is a heterogeneous disease, two of whose characteristic features are uncontrollable cell proliferation and insufficient apoptosis. Various studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of propolis, a natural bee product, from different countries, and its cytotoxic effects have been attributed to its polyphenol contents. The purpose of this study was to show the cytotoxic effects, and possible mechanisms involved, of ethanolic extract of Turkish propolis (EEP) on the human lung cancer (A549) cell line. Cytotoxic activity of EEP on A549 cells was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic action of EEP on A549 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, endoplasmic reticulum stress using RT-PCR, and caspase activity using luminometric analysis. EEP exhibited selective toxicity against A549 cells compared to normal fibroblast cells. We determined that EEP arrested the cell cycle of A549 cells at the G1 phase, induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, caspase activity, and apoptosis and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. These results indicate that Turkish propolis is capable of reducing cancer cell proliferation and may have a promising role to play in the development of new anticancer drugs in the future.

Nutr Cancer. 2015 Dec 23:1-8. Epub 2015 Dec 23. PMID: 26700423


In this review, the mechanism of anticancer effect of curcumin in GBM has been discussed extensively.

GBM (Glioblastoma) is the most malignant human brain tumor with median survival of one year. The treatment involves surgery, radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy mostly with the alkylation agents such as temozolomide (TMZ). Dietary polyphenol curcumin, isolated from the rhizome of the Curcuma longa (turmeric), has emerged as remarkable anti-cancer agent in the treatment of various peripheral cancers such as blood, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, melanoma as well as skin, lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, liver, gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic and colorectal epithelial cancers with a pleiotropic mode of action and also showed promise in alleviation of GBM. In this review, the mechanism of anticancer effect of curcumin in GBM has been discussed extensively. The clinical safety and pharmacokinetics of curcumin has been scrutinized to combat the challenges for the treatment of GBM.

Eur J Med Chem. 2015 Dec 15 ;109:23-35. Epub 2015 Dec 15. PMID: 26748069


The molecular mechanisms of curcumins suppressive effects on tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis, focusing on NF-κB pathway.

NF-κB pathway has long been considered as one of the potent prototypical pro-inflammatory signaling pathway and its role in several aspects of human health has been established. Recent studies have suggested that NF-κB activation is the master key in early development and pathobiology of several Cancers. Curcumin is a polyphenolic phytochemical compound with several stablished anti-inflammatory properties and is known to exert its anti-inflammatory effects mostly by interrupting NF-κB signaling pathway at multiple stages. Here we tried to provide a summary of recent finding, focusing on introducing NF-κB signaling pathways and its potential mechanism involved in development of several types of Cancers.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2016 Jan 2. Epub 2016 Jan 2. PMID: 26774676


This review explores the full potential of resveratrol in breast cancer prevention and treatment.

Globally, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women. The major unresolved problems with metastatic breast cancer is recurrence after receiving objective response to chemotherapy, drug-induced side effects of first line chemotherapy and delayed response to second line of treatment. Unfortunately, very few options are available as third line treatment. It is clear that under such circumstances there is an urgent need for new and effective drugs. Phytochemicals are among the most promising chemopreventive treatment options for the management of cancer.Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a non-flavonoid polyphenol present in several dietary sources, including grapes, berries, soy beans, pomegranate and peanuts, has been shown to possess a wide range of health benefits through its effect on a plethora of molecular targets.The present review encompassesthe role of resveratrol and its natural/synthetic anlogues in the light of their efficacy against tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, epigenetic alterations and for induction of apoptosis as well as sensitization towards chemotherapeutic drugs in various in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer. The roles of resveratrol as a phytoestrogen, an aromatase inhibitor and in stem cell therapy as well as adjuvent treatment are also discussed. This review explores the full potential of resveratrolin breast cancer prevention and treatment with current limitations, challenges and future directions of research.

Semin Cancer Biol. 2016 Jan 13. Epub 2016 Jan 13. PMID: 26774195


The combination of curcumin, EGCG and arctigenin synergistically enhanced the anti-proliferative effects in both prostate and breast cancer cells.

The low bioavailability of most flavonoids limits their application as anti-carcinogenic agents in humans. A novel approach of treatment with a mixture of bioactive compounds that share molecular anti-carcinogenic targets may enhance the effect on these targets at low concentrations of individual compound, thereby overcoming the limitations of reduced bioavailability. We therefore investigated whether a combination of three natural products arctigenin (Arc), a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin (Cur) increases the chemopreventive potency of individual compounds. LNCaP prostate cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 2-4 mg/L (about 5-10μM) Cur, 1μM Arc and 40μM EGCG alone or in combination for 48h. In both cell lines treatment with the mixture of Cur, Arc and EGCG synergistically increased the antiproliferative effect. In LNCaP cells both Arc and EGCG increased the pro-apoptotic effect of Cur. Whereas in MCF-7 cells Arc increased the cell apoptosis of Cur while EGCG enhanced cell cycle arrest of Cur at G0/G1 phase. The strongest effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were achieved by combining all three compounds in both cell lines. The combination treatment significantly increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins,decreased the activation of NFκB, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 pathways and cell migration compared to individual treatment. These results warrant in vivo studies to confirm the efficacy of this novel regimen by combining Arc and EGCG with Cur to enhance chemoprevention in both prostate and breast cancer.

RSC Adv. 2014 Aug 5 ;4(66):35242-35250. PMID: 25243063


Pelingo apple is rich in food components that can markedly inhibit in vitro tumorigenesis and growth of human breast cancer cells.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity in breast cancer cells and the inhibition of tumorigenesis in pre-neoplastic cells of a new apple cultivar with reddish pulp, called the Pelingo apple. METHODS: The antiproliferative activity was evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The inhibition of tumorigenesis was performed in JB6 promotion-sensitive (P+) cells. RESULTS: Results showed that Pelingo apple juice is characterized by a very high polyphenol content and strongly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Its antiproliferative activity was found to be higher than the other five apple juices tested. Pelingo juice induced cell accumulation in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and autophagy through overexpression of p21, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and an increase in lipidated microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 beta (LC3B). Remarkably, Pelingo juice inhibited the 12-o-tetra-decanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumorigenesis of JB6 P+ cells, suppressing colony formation in semi-solid medium and TPA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the Pelingo apple is rich in food components that can markedly inhibit in vitro tumorigenesis and growth of human breast cancer cells and could provide natural bioactive non-nutrient compounds, with potential chemopreventive activity.

PLoS One. 2015 ;10(8):e0135840. Epub 2015 Aug 18. PMID: 26284516


Resveratrol induces DNA damage in colon cancer cells by poisoning topoisomerase II.

Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenol synthesized by various plants such as grape vine. Resveratrol (RSV) is a widely studied molecule, largely for its chemopreventive effect in different mouse cancer models. We propose a mechanism underlying the cytotoxic activity of RSV on colon cancer cells. Our data show that resveratrol induces apoptosis, as observed by the cleavage of PARP-1 and chromatin condensation. We show that the tumor suppressor p53 is activated in response to RSV and participates to the apoptotic process. Additionally, we show that HCT-116 p53 wt colon carcinoma cells are significantly more sensitive than HCT-116 p53-/- cells to RSV. RSV induces DNA damage including double strand breaks, as evidenced by the presence of multipleγ-H2AX foci in 50% of cells after a 24 h treatment with 25 μM RSV. The formation of DNA damage does not appear to rely on a pro-oxidant effect of the molecule, inhibition of topoisomerase I, or DNA intercalation. Rather, we show that DNA damage is the consequence of type II topoisomerase poisoning. Exposure of HCT-116 cells to RSV leads to activation of the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase, and ATM is required to activate p53.

Toxicol In Vitro. 2015 Aug ;29(5):1156-65. Epub 2015 May 5. PMID: 25952326


Resveratrol has potential as a supplemental therapy for the prevention of renal injury.

Resveratrol (RESV) is a polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts, and its processed foods as red wine. RESV possesses a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, chemopreventive, neuroprotective, renal lipotoxicity preventative, and renal protective effects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that polyphenols promote cardiovascular health. Furthermore, RESV can ameliorate several types of renal injury in animal models, including diabetic nephropathy, hyperuricemic, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, RESV can prevent the increase in vasoconstrictors, such as angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), as well as intracellular calcium, in mesangial cells. Together, these findings suggest a potential role for RESV as a supplemental therapy for the prevention of renal injury.

J Bras Nefrol. 2015 Jan-Mar;37(1):106-14. PMID: 25923757


Polyphenolic compounds from chaga mushroom had the ability to inhibit topoisomerase II.

Low molecular weight (LMW) polyphenolics containing a polyhydroxylated benzyl moiety are abundant in medicinal plants. In the present study, we report on the activities of seven LMW polyphenolics isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom. The isolated compounds included caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL), gallic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid. We analyzed their inhibitory effects on DNA polymerase (pol) and DNA topoisomerase (topo), and their effects on human cancer cell growth. All isolated compounds inhibited human topo II activity; the most potent were DBL and CA, which contain a catechol propanoid moiety. CA and DBL inhibited the activity of human topo I, whereas other compounds had no effect. No compound modulated the activities of 11 mammalian pol species or other DNA metabolic enzymes, including T7 RNA polymerase, mouse IMP dehydrogenase (type II), T4 polynucleotide kinase and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. CA and DBL markedly suppressed the proliferation of human colon HCT116 carcinoma cells with an LD50 of 70.0 and 49.4µM, respectively, and halted the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. The suppressive effect of these compounds on cancer cell growth correlated with their ability to inhibit topo II. These results suggest that CA- and DBL-dependent decreases in cell proliferation are due to the inhibition of cellular topo II. The mechanism of action of these catechol propanoid compounds and the implication for their use as anticancer agents are discussed.

Mol Med Rep. 2013 Aug ;8(2):535-42. Epub 2013 Jun 25. PMID: 23799608


Nano-Curcumin is a safe compound with potent ability as an anti-cancer and antimicrobial agent.

Background Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, commonly called turmeric. Extensive research over the last 50 years has demonstrated that these polyphenols play an important role in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases, in addition to its therapeutic benefits such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. Materials and methods This study is devoted to the enhancement of the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin nanoparticles prepared by a process based on a wet-milling technique and then examine in vitro against prostate cancer cell line 3 (PC3), human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK), human erythrocytes (red blood cells (RBCs)), and against fourth different bacterial strains two gram-positive (Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213), two gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). Results The cell viability curve, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated. Nanocurcumin displayed significant activity against cancer cell line (PC3) and low toxicity against normal cells (HEK) compared with parent curcumin in favor of PC3 (P  0.05). On the other hand, the results demonstrate that, the MBCs of nanocurcumin were lower than curcumin for all different bacterial strains. Moreover, the selected gram-positive bacteria had higher sensitivity than the selected gram-negative bacteria for both curcumin and nanocurcumin. In conclusion, all these findings not only indicate that nanocurcumin safe compound has a potent ability as anti-cancer and antimicrobial activities, but also well justify the avail of using nanocurcumin as prostate cells PC3 anti-cancer, and antimicrobial agent for nanocurcumin are markedly improved by decreasing particle size to the nano-scale regime.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2016 Jan 8:1-10. Epub 2016 Jan 8. PMID: 26747522


These findings provide new evidence that the anti-metastatic and anti-EMT activities of Curcumin.

Thyroid cancers usually possess a good prognosis while the risks of recurrence and metastasis turn out to be a disturbing issue. Curcumin [bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] is a natural polyphenolic compound mainly found in turmeric (Curcuma longa). Our previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin showed proliferation-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying the inhibition effects of curcumin on thyroid cancer cells remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that curcumin remarkably increased the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed the expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells. Curcumin also suppressed multiple metastatic steps of BCPAP cells, including cell attachment, spreading as well as migration. In addition, the transcription, secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in BCPAP cells were mitigated upon curcumin treatment. Further evidence showed that curcumin decreased TGF-β1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. These results revealed that curcumin inhibited the TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via down-regulation ofSmad2/3 signalling pathways. Our findings provide new evidence that the anti-metastatic and anti-EMT activities of curcumin may contribute to the development of chemo-preventive agents for thyroid cancer treatment.

Exp Cell Res. 2016 Jan 27. Epub 2016 Jan 27. PMID: 26826337


This review summarizes evidence suggesting that silibinin can inhibit pSTAT3 in preclinical cancer models.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in many different types of cancer and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. Retrospective studies have established that STAT3 expression or phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3 or activated STAT3) are poor prognostic markers for breast, colon, prostate and non-small cell lung cancer. Silibinin or silybin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid which is present in seed extracts of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Silibinin has been shown to inhibit multiple cancer cell signaling pathways in preclinical models, demonstrating promising anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that silibinin can inhibit pSTAT3 in preclinical cancer models. We also discuss current strategies to overcome the limitations of oral administration of silibinin to cancer patients to translate the bench results to the bed side. Finally, we review the ongoing clinical trials exploring the role of silibinin in cancer.

Cancer Treat Rev. 2015 Jun ;41(6):540-6. Epub 2015 Apr 27. PMID: 25944486


All four theaflavin derivatives tested reduced the viability of ovarian cancer cells.

BACKGROUND: Some polyphenols induce apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis. Consumption of black tea, rich in polyphenols, has been found to reduce ovarian cancer risk. Theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2a), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2b) and theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate (TF3) are four main theaflavin derivatives found in black tea.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation assay, Hoechst 33342 staining assay, Caspase-Glo Assay, western blot, human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation assay and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed.RESULTS: All four theaflavin derivatives reduced viability of ovarian cancer cells at lower concentrations than with normal ovarian cells. TF1 mainly mediated apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway, while the others via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. TF1 inhibited tube formation via reducing VEGF secretion in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-independent manner, while the others in a HIF1α-dependent way.CONCLUSION: All four theaflavin derivatives inhibited ovarian cancer cells. Some of the effects and mechanisms of TF1 are different from those of the other three theaflavin derivatives.

Anticancer Res. 2016 Feb ;36(2):643-51. PMID: 26851019


Curcumin-treated cancer cells show mitotic disturbances leading to growth arrest and induction of senescence phenotype.

Cellular senescence is recognized as a potent anticancer mechanism that inhibits carcinogenesis. Cancer cells can also undergo senescence upon chemo- or radiotherapy. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, shows anticancer properties both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, we have shown that treatment with curcumin leads to senescence of human cancer cells. Now we identified the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We observed a time-dependent accumulation of mitotic cells upon curcumin treatment. The time-lapse analysis proved that those cells progressed through mitosis for a significantly longer period of time. A fraction of cells managed to divide or undergo mitotic slippage and then enter the next phase of the cell cycle. Cells arrested in mitosis had an improperly formed mitotic spindle and were positive forγH2AX, which shows that they acquired DNA damage during prolonged mitosis. Moreover, the DNA damage response pathway was activated upon curcumin treatment and the components of this pathway remained upregulated while cells were undergoing senescence. Inhibition of the DNA damage response decreasedthe number of senescent cells. Thus, our studies revealed that the induction of cell senescence upon curcumin treatment resulted from aberrant progression through the cell cycle. Moreover, the DNA damage acquired by cancer cells, due to mitotic disturbances, activates an important molecular mechanism that determines the potential anticancer activity of curcumin.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016 Feb 22 ;74:33-43. Epub 2016 Feb 22. PMID: 26916504


Polyphenol stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles from Abutilon indicum leaf extract induce apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

Green synthesized gold nanoparticles have received substantial attention owing to their biomedical applications, particularly in cancer therapy. Although anticancer activities of green synthesized gold nanoparticles have been reported earlier, the underlying mechanism behind their anticancer activity is still to be understood. The present study, describes the green synthesis of Abutilon indicum gold nanoparticles (AIGNPs) from Abutilon indicum leaf extract (AILE) and their cytotoxic mechanism in colon cancer cells. Dimensions of spherical shaped AIGNPs were found to be in the range of 1-20nm as determined by TEM. GC-MS and FTIR analysis indicated the presence of polyphenolic groups in AILE, which might have been involved in the stabilization of AIGNPs. In vitro free radical scavenging analysis revealed the radical quenching activity of AIGNPs. Further, the AIGNPs exhibited cytotoxicity in HT-29 colon cancer cells with IC50 values of 210 and 180μg/mL after 24 and 48h. This was mediated through nuclear morphological changes and cell membrane damage as evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and AnnexinV-Cy3 staining methods. Mechanism of the observed cytotoxicity of AIGNPs was explained on the basis of increased levels of reactive oxygen species and simultaneous reduction in cellular antioxidants, which might have caused mitochondrial membrane potential loss, DNA damage and G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. Expression of cleaved Caspase-9, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, Lamin A/C and PARP, provided the clues for the induction of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in AIGNPs treated HT-29 cells. The study provides a preliminary guidance towards the development of colon cancer therapy using green synthesized gold nanoparticles.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016 Mar 26 ;143:499-510. Epub 2016 Mar 26. PMID: 27038915


This review focuses on curcumin's therapeutic effectiveness in vitro and in vivo in prostate cancer models.

Primary prostate cancer, also known as prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa), is a devastating cancer in men worldwide. Europe and developing countries of Asia have fewer reported cases of prostate cancer compared to increasing cases in the United States with higher incidence in Black men. Risk factors associated with prostate cancer are aging, genetics, lifestyle, high body mass index as well as carcinogenic exposure to carbon-containing fuels, tobacco, and charbroiled meats. Hormone therapy and radical prostatectomy are commonly implemented treatments. The>20.000 prostate cancer deaths of 2013 suggest that there exists a need for enhanced chemopreventive and therapeutic agents for prostate cancer treatment. Fruits, vegetables, and red wines contain high levels of polyphenolic levels. Consumption of these products may provide chemoprevetion of PCa. Curcumin, the major compound from the turmeric rhizome Curcuma longa has long been used for medicinal purposes as an antiseptic and wound healing. This review focuses on curcumin's therapeutic effectiveness in vitro and in vivo in prostate cancer models. The review will highlight the mechanisms of actions of curcumin in the signaling pathways of prostate cancer.

Life Sci. 2016 Mar 23. Epub 2016 Mar 23. PMID: 27018446


Curcumin could be an ideal chemopreventive agent against H. pylori mediated gastric carcinogenesis.

Curcumin, a yellow pigment and principal polyphenolic Curcuminoid obtained from the turmeric rhizome Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a food-coloring agent. Studies suggest that curcumin has a wide range of beneficial properties e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-fungal and anti-microbial. These pleiotropic activities prompted several research groups to elucidate the role of curcumin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This is the first review with this heading where we discussed regarding the role of curcumin as an anti-H. pylori agent along with its potential in other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on several in vitro, early cell culture, animal research and few pre-clinical trials, curcumin projected as a potential therapeutic candidate against H. pylori mediated gastric pathogenesis. This review sheds light on the anti-H. pylori effects of curcumin in different models with meticulous emphasis on its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects as well as some critical signaling and effecter molecules. Remarkably, non-toxic molecule curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent against H. pylori mediated gastric carcinogenesis but the foremost challenge is to obtain the optimum therapeutic levels of curcumin, due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Further, we have discussed about the possibilities for improving its efficacy and bioavailability. Lastly, we concluded with the anticipation that in near future curcumin may be used to develop a therapeutic drug against H. pylori mediated gastric ailments through improved formulation or delivery systems, facilitating its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake.

World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Mar 7 ;22(9):2736-48. PMID: 26973412


Co-supplementation of melatonin antioxidant ameliorates these toxic effects of gossypol.

PURPOSE OF STUDY: To determine melatonin as a potential natural antioxidant to mitigate the genotoxic effects of promising anti-cancer drug gossypol in human lymphocytes.INTRODUCTION: Gossypol, is a polyphenolic compound naturally occurring in cotton seed, was originally identified as a male contraceptive but it has several proposed clinical applications. Gossypol has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cell lines. However, its genotoxic effects on normal cells are not much studied. Hence, there is a paucity of data available. Hence, the study was conducted to investigate gossypol-induced genotoxic effects on lymphocytes.METHODS: Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures (PBLC) were done and exposed by two different doses of an anti-cancer drug, gossypol (0.274 mM, 1.645 mM) to check genotoxic effects. Melatonin (0.2 mM) is used as an antioxidant. Genotoxic indices such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), cell cycle proliferative index (CCPI), average generation time (AGT), population doubling time (PDT) were assayed in the cultures.RESULT: Gossypol-treated groups indicated significant increases in frequency of SCEs calculated for SCE/plate and SCE/chromosome. Furthermore, CCPI showed a remarkable reduction and increased AGT and PDT levels were found in exposed cultures. When the higher dose of gossypol cultures was treated along with melatonin, these indices were found to be declined and comparable to control.CONCLUSION: Gossypol, an anti-cancer drug, induces genotoxicity on lymphocyte cells and co-supplementation of melatonin antioxidant ameliorates these toxic effects of gossypol.

Drug Chem Toxicol. 2016 Apr 12:1-5. Epub 2016 Apr 12. PMID: 27071859


This review contributed to clarifying the mechanisms of absorption and metabolism of isoquercitrin.

This review was based on a literature search of PubMed and Scielo databases using the keywords"quercetin, rutin, isoquercitrin, isoquercitin (IQ), quercetin-3-glucoside, bioavailability, flavonols and favonoids, and cancer"and combinations of all the words. We collected relevant scientific publications from 1990 to 2015 about the absorption, bioavailability, chemoprevention activity, and treatment effects as well as the underlying anticancer mechanisms of isoquercitin. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. The subclass of flavonols receives special attention owing to their health benefits. The main components of this class are quercetin, rutin, and IQ, which is a flavonoid and although mostly found as a glycoside, is an aglycone (lacks a glycoside side chain). This compound presents similar therapeutic profiles to quercetin but with superior bioavailability, resulting in increased efficacy compared to the aglycone form. IQ has therapeutic applications owing to its wide range of pharmacological effects including antioxidant, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic. The protective effects of IQ in cancer may be due to actions on lipid peroxidation. In addition, the antitumor effect of IQ and its underlying mechanism are related to interactions with Wnt signaling pathway, mixed-lineage protein kinase 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, apoptotic pathways, as well proinflammatory protein signaling. This review contributed to clarifying the mechanisms of absorption, metabolism, and actions of IQ and isoquercitrin in cancer.

World J Clin Oncol. 2016 Apr 10 ;7(2):189-99. PMID: 27081641


Apple and Hop-polyphenols inhibit P. gingivalis-mediated precursor of MMP-9 activation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies have revealed a significant association between periodontitis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Furthermore, periodontitis is markedly associated with orodigestive cancer mortality, while Porphyromonas gingivalis infection has been identified as a specific and potentially independent microbial factor related to increased risk of orodigestive cancer death. We previously reported that P. gingivalis induced the precursor form of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (proMMP9) production via proteinase activated receptor (PAR)-related pathways, after which proMMP9 was activated by gingipains to enhance cellular invasion of SAS cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of selected polyphenols as inhibitors of cellular invasion caused by P. gingivalis gingipains in SAS cells.METHODS: OSCC cells were infected with P. gingivalis strains including gingipain mutants. To evaluate the effects of inhibitors, apple polyphenol (AP), hop bract polyphenol (HBP), high and low molecular weight fractions of HBP (HMW-HBP and LMW-HBP), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), KYT-1 (Arg-gingipain inhibitor), and KYT-36 (Lys-gingipain inhibitor) were used. Proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and PAR4 mRNA expressions were examined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and signaling pathways were evaluated by western blotting analysis.RESULTS: KYT-1/KYT-36, AP, HBP, and HMW-HBP significantly inhibited PAR2 and PAR4 mRNA expressions, proMMP9 activation, and cellular invasion. Furthermore, AP, HBP, and HMW-HBP reduced activation of HSP27 and Ets1 and nuclear translocation of NF-kB, whereas EGCg and LMW-HBP did not.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that AP, HBP, and HMW-HBP are potent inhibitors of proMMP9 activation and cellular invasion mediated with P. gingivalis in OSCC cells.

J Periodontol. 2016 May 13:1-21. Epub 2016 May 13. PMID: 27177287


EGCG has the potential for therapeutic effect on oral cancer and may be useful for long-term oral cancer prevention in the future.

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea polyphenol that presents anticancer activities in multiple cancer cells, but no available report was addressed for the underling molecular mechanism of cytotoxic impacts on drug-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of EGCG were experienced on cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cells. EGCG inhibited cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. EGCG induced CAR cell apoptosis and autophagy by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye, acridine orange (AO) staining and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged LC3B assay, respectively. EGCG also significantly enhanced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities by caspase activity assay. EGCG markedly increased the protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin-1, and LC3B-II, as well as significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2, phosphorylated AKT (Ser473) and phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 by western blotting in CAR cells. Importantly, the protein and gene expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) were dose-dependently inhibited by EGCG. Overall, downregulation of MDR1 levels and alterations of AKT/STAT3 signaling contributed to EGCG-induced apoptosis and autophagy in CAR cells. Based on these results, EGCG has the potential for therapeutic effect on oral cancer and may be useful for long-term oral cancer prevention in the future.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2016.

Environ Toxicol. 2016 May 20. Epub 2016 May 20. PMID: 27200496


EGCG has the potential for therapeutic effect on oral cancer and may be useful for long-term oral cancer prevention in the future.

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea polyphenol that presents anticancer activities in multiple cancer cells, but no available report was addressed for the underling molecular mechanism of cytotoxic impacts on drug-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of EGCG were experienced on cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cells. EGCG inhibited cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. EGCG induced CAR cell apoptosis and autophagy by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye, acridine orange (AO) staining and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged LC3B assay, respectively. EGCG also significantly enhanced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities by caspase activity assay. EGCG markedly increased the protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin-1, and LC3B-II, as well as significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2, phosphorylated AKT (Ser473) and phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 by western blotting in CAR cells. Importantly, the protein and gene expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) were dose-dependently inhibited by EGCG. Overall, downregulation of MDR1 levels and alterations of AKT/STAT3 signaling contributed to EGCG-induced apoptosis and autophagy in CAR cells. Based on these results, EGCG has the potential for therapeutic effect on oral cancer and may be useful for long-term oral cancer prevention in the future.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2016.

Environ Toxicol. 2016 May 20. Epub 2016 May 20. PMID: 27200496


Some flavonoids have the potential to be an effective alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of colon cancer.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer in the world, causing thousands of deaths annually. Although chemotherapy is known to be an effective treatment to combat colon cancer, it produces severe side effects. Natural products, on the other hand, appear to generate fewer side effects than do chemotherapeutic drugs. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in various fruits and vegetables known to possess antioxidant activities, and the literature shows that several of these flavonoids have anti-CRC propertiesFlavonoids are classified into five main subclasses: flavonols, flavanones, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and flavanonols. Of these subclasses, the flavanonols have a minimum effect against CRC, whereas the flavones play an important role. The main targets for the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on CRC signaling pathways are caspase; nuclear factor kappa B; mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9; p53;β-catenin; cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 and CDK4; and cyclins A, B, D, and E. In this review article, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies that have been performed since 2000 on the anti-CRC properties of flavonoids. We also describe the signaling pathways affected by flavonoids that have been found to be involved in CRC. Some flavonoids have the potential to be an effective alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of colon cancer; well-controlled clinical studies should, however, be conducted to support this proposal.

Int J Med Sci. 2016 ;13(5):374-85. Epub 2016 Apr 29. PMID: 27226778


Curcumin was found to modulate the expression of several pathogenic miRs in brain, ocular, renal, and liver diseases.

Curcumin is a bioactive polyphenol occurring in the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. It is well-reputed for its chemopreventive and anticancer properties; however, recent evidence has revealed numerous biological and pharmacological effects of curcumin that are relevant to the treatment of non-cancer diseases. Mechanistically, curcumin exerts its pharmacological effects through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms via interaction with different signaling molecules and transcription factors. In addition, epigenetic modulators such as microRNAs (miRs) have emerged as novel targets of curcumin. Curcumin was found to modulate the expression of several pathogenic miRs in brain, ocular, renal, and liver diseases. The present systematic review was conducted to identify miRs that are regulated by curcumin in non-cancer diseases.

Mol Diagn Ther. 2016 May 30. Epub 2016 May 30. PMID: 27241179


Mangiferin has multipotent anti-inflammatory potentials.

Over the last era, small molecules sourced from different plants have gained attention for their varied and long-term medicinal benefits. Their advantageous therapeutic effects in diverse pathological complications lead researchers to give an ever-increasing emphasis on them and discover their novel therapeutic potentials. Among these, the heat stable, xanthonoid group of organic molecules has gained special importance with distinctive regards to the bioactive molecule mangiferin due to its solubility in water. Mangiferin, a yellow polyphenol having C-glycosyl xanthone structure, is widely present in different edible sources like mango, and possesses numerous biological activities. Extensive research with this molecule shows its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer, antimicrobial, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties. Thus, it provides protection against a wide range of physiological disorders. The C-glucosyl linkage and polyhydroxy groups in mangiferin's structure contribute essentially to its free radical-scavenging activity. Moreover, its ability in regulating various transcription factors like NF-κB, Nrf-2, etc. and modulating the expression of different proinflammatory signaling intermediates like tumor necrosis factor-α, COX-2, etc. contribute to its anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic potentials. In this comprehensive article, information has been provided about the sources,chemical structure, metabolism, and different biological activities of mangiferin with special emphasis on the underlying cellular signal transduction pathways. Insights into an in-depth assessment of mangiferin's anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential have also been discussed in detail. On an overall perspective, this review aims to stage mangiferin's diversified therapeutic applications and its emerging possibility as a promising drug in future based on its anti-inflammatory property. © 2016 BioFactors, 2016.

Biofactors. 2016 May 24. Epub 2016 May 24. PMID: 27219011


Curcumin and Ellagic acid show anti-HPV activity as evidenced by decrease in the HPV E6 oncoprotein on HeLa cells.

Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the cervix continue to be a global health issue, and the medication for the treatment for chronic HPV infection so far has not been effective. Potential anticancer and anti HPV activities of two known phytochemicals, Curcumin and Ellagic acid were evaluated in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Curcumin is a natural compound found in the root of Curcuma longa plant and Ellagic acid a polyphenol found in fruits of strawberries, raspberries and walnuts. The combination of Curcumin and Ellagic acid at various concentrations showed better anticancer properties than either of the drug when used alone as evidenced by MTT assay. Besides this, Curcumin and Ellagic acid also restore p53, induce ROS formation and DNA damage. Mechanistic study further indicated that Curcumin and Ellagic acid show anti-HPV activity as evidenced by decrease in the HPV E6 oncoprotein on HeLa cells.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Jul ;81:31-7. Epub 2016 Apr 8. PMID: 27261574


The anti-cancer effect of green tea can be explained by either its anti-oxidative or pro-oxidative property.

Tea derived from the leaves and buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is consumed worldwide. Green tea contains various components with specific health-promoting effects, and is believed to exert protective effects against diseases including cancer, diabetes and hepatitis, as well as obesity. Of the various tea components, the polyphenol catechins have been the subject of extensive investigation and among the catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate has the strongest bioactivity in most cases. Our research group has postulated that hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, and tumor necrosis factor-α are targets of green tea constituents including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate for their anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-hepatitis effects, respectively. Published papers were reviewed to determine whether the observedchanges in these factors can be correlated with anti-cancer effects of green tea. Two major action mechanisms of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate have been proposed; one associated with its anti-oxidative properties and the other with its pro-oxidative activity. When reactive oxygen species are assumedto be involved, our findings that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate down- regulated hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, and tumor necrosis factor-α may explain the anti-cancer effect of green tea as well. However, further studies are required to elucidate which determinant directs (-)-epigallocatechin gallate action as an anti-oxidant or a pro-oxidant for favorable activity.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016 ;17(4):1649-54. PMID: 27221834


EGCG may be useful for prevention of intestinal disorders or bacterial infection in animals/humans.

SCOPE: Green tea has been known to confer numerous health benefits such as the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancers, and obesity. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol present in green tea. Since EGCG is a food-derived component, intestinal epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract are constantly and directly exposed to EGCG. It is anticipated that EGCG can exert beneficial effects in the intestine. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of EGCG on intestinal barrier functions against bacterial translocation by using a porcine jejunal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2.METHODS AND RESULTS: EGCG reduced bacterial translocation across IPEC-J2 cell monolayers through the enhancement of the intestinal epithelial immunological barrier function by inducing secretion of antimicrobial peptides, porcineβ-defensins 1 and 2 (pBD-1 and 2), which possessed higher antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that EGCG upregulated pBD-2 but not pBD-1 via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent pathway. Such effects were not an"artifact"of hydrogen peroxide, catechin dimers, or other auto-oxidation products generated from EGCG in cell culture media.CONCLUSION: Our results imply that EGCG may be useful for prevention of intestinal disorders or bacterial infection in animals/humans.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 May ;60(5):1048-58. Epub 2016 Apr 4. PMID: 26991948


This reviews natural plants as breast cancer preventatives or use in treatments.

For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. These phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. They either stimulate the protective enzyme like glutathione transferase or prevent the cell proliferation. This review has centered on the biochemical properties of Allium sativum, Echinacea, Curcuma longa, Arctium lappa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng and Flax seed. Extracts and juices of Withania somnifera, Amoora rohituka, Dysoxylum binectariferum and Vaccinium macrocarpon, respectively also used as anti-breast cancer. The volatile oils and extracts of these herbs and plants inhibit the synthesis of mevalonate that lessen the tumor growth and cholesterol synthesis.

Saudi Pharm J. 2016 May ;24(3):233-40. Epub 2016 May 5. PMID: 27275107


EGCG in combination with cisplatin can be used for the management of head and neck squamous carcinoma cancer stem cells.

Most solid cancers including head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSC) are believed to be initiated from and maintained by cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for treatment resistance, resulting in tumour relapse. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea, can potently inhibit cancer growth and induce apoptosis in various cancers, including HNSC. However, its effect on HNSC CSCs is not well elucidated. In this study, we examined the anti-tumour effect of EGCG on HNSC CSCs. We demonstrated that EGCG inhibits the self-renewal capacity of HNSC CSCs by suppressing their sphere forming capacity, and attenuates the expression of stem cell markers, such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44. EGCG treatment augmented cisplatin-mediated chemosensitivity by suppressing ABCC2 and ABCG2 transporter genes, which are putative molecules of treatment resistance of CSC. In addition, the combination treatment of EGCG and cisplatin inhibited tumour formation and induced apoptosis in a xenograft model. As one of mechanisms of suppression of HNSC CSC traits, EGCG decreased the transcriptional level of Notch, resulting in the inhibition of Notch signalling. Collectively, our data suggest that EGCG in combination with cisplatin can be used for the management of HNSC CSCs.

Eur J Cancer. 2013 Oct ;49(15):3210-8. Epub 2013 Jul 19. PMID: 23876835


Berry anthocyanins reduce proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide, and adenocarcinoma cells that form the majority of colorectal tumors are markedly resistant to antineoplastic agents. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of fruits and vegetables that are rich in polyphenols, is linked to reduced risk of colorectal cancer. In the present study, the effect of a standardized anthocyanin (ACN)‑rich extract on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in the Caco-2 human colorectal cancer cell line was evaluated by trypan blue and clonogenic assays and western blot analysis of cleaved caspase‑3 and p21Waf/Cif1. The results of the current study demonstrated that the ACN extract markedlydecreased Caco‑2 cell proliferation, induced apoptosis by activating caspase‑3 cleavage, and upregulated cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21Waf/Cif1) expression in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, ACN extract was able to produce a dose‑dependent increase of intracellular reactiveoxygen species (ROS) in Caco‑2 cells, together with a light increase of the cell total antioxidant status. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that a standardized berry anthocyanin rich extract inhibited proliferation of Caco‑2 cells by promoting ROS accumulation, inducing caspase‑3activation, and upregulating the expression of p21Waf/Cif1.

Mol Med Rep. 2016 Jun 13. Epub 2016 Jun 13. PMID: 27314273


EGCG has an anticancer effect on Osteosarcoma cells.

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant and active polyphenol in green tea, has been demonstrated to have anticancer effects in a wide variety of human cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs and play important role in gene regulation and are critically involved in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancer. This study aims to investigate the effects of EGCG on osteosarcoma (OS) cells and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Cellular function assays revealed that EGCG inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis of OS cells in vitro, and also inhibited the growth of transplanted tumors in vivo. By miRNA microarray and RT-qPCR analysis, miR-1 was found to be significantly upregulated in MG-63 and U-2OS treated by EGCG in dose- and time-dependent manners, and miR-1 downregulation by inhibitor mimics attenuated EGCG-induced inhibition on cell growth of OS cells. We also confirmed that miR-1 was also frequently decreased in clinical OS tumor tissues. Moreover, both EGCG and miR-1 mimic inhibited c-MET expression, and combination treatment with EGCG and c-MET inhibitor (crizotinib) had enhanced inhibitory effects on the growth of MG-63 and U-2OS cells. Taken together, these results suggest that EGCG has an anticancer effect on OS cells, at least partially, through regulating miR-1/c-MET interaction.

Tumour Biol. 2016 Apr ;37(4):4373-82. Epub 2015 Oct 24. PMID: 26499783


EGCG may accentuate oxidative stress to inhibit growth of ovarian cancer cells and sensitize them to cisplatin.

The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has cancer chemopreventive properties against various types of cancers. The compound is known to attack various targets in transformed cells. In this report, we examined the action of EGCG on ovarian cancer cells. Eight ovarian cancer cell lines were tested (SKOV3, CAOV3, OVCAR3, OVCAR10, A2780, CP70, C30, and C200) and showed IC50s for EGCG at the micromolar range, including ones that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. The ovarian cancer cells were sensitive to H2O2 at similar concentrations, and EGCG treatment led to enhanced intracellular H2O2. Neutralization with pyruvate, a scavenger of H2O2, suggests that the toxicity of EGCG may be mediated by oxidative stress from the free radical. Addition of Tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, demonstrates that H2O2 might be generated endogenously from superoxide. The toxicity of cisplatin and the development of cisplatin resistance are major obstacles in treatment of ovarian cancer. We found that addition of EGCG amplified the toxicity of cisplatin. EGCG increased cisplatin potency by three to six-fold in SKOV3, CAOV3, and C200 cells, the latter being a cell line induced to have several hundred fold resistant to cisplatin above the parental line. Our findings suggest that EGCG may accentuate oxidative stress to inhibit growth of ovarian cancer cells and sensitize them to cisplatin.

J Cell Physiol. 2006 May ;207(2):389-96. PMID: 16402374


The use of polyphenols might represent a promising strategy to contrast the development or to prevent malignant mesothelioma.

Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a tumor of the serous membranes linked to exposure to asbestos. A chronic inflammatory response orchestrated by mesothelial cells contributes to the development and progression of MM. The evidence that: (a) multiple signaling pathways are aberrantly activated in MM cells; (b) asbestos mediated-chronic inflammation has a key role in MM carcinogenesis; (c) the deregulation of the immune system might favor the development of MM; and (d) a drug might have a better efficacy when injected into a serous cavity thus bypassing biotransformation and reaching an effective dose has prompted investigations to evaluate the effects of polyphenols for the therapy and prevention of MM. Dietary polyphenols are able to inhibit cancer cell growth by targeting multiple signaling pathways, reducing inflammation, and modulating immune response. The ability of polyphenols to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory molecules by targeting signaling pathways or ROS might represent a key mechanism to prevent and/or to contrast the development of MM. In this review, we will report the current knowledge on the ability of polyphenols to modulate the immune system and production of mediators of inflammation, thus revealing an important tool in preventing and/or counteracting the growth of MM.

Nutrients. 2016 ;8(5). Epub 2016 May 9. PMID: 27171110


Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride exhibits cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells in vitro and induces apoptosis in Caco-2 cells.

Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G₀/G₁ phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis.

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 ;17(7). Epub 2016 Jun 23. PMID: 27347927


This review focuses on the different targets of curcumin to treat cancer.

Curcumin, is a polyphenol from Curcuma longa (turmeric plant), is a polyphenol that belongs to the ginger family which has long been used in Ayurveda medicines to treat various diseases such as asthma, anorexia, coughing, hepatic diseases, diabetes, heart diseases, wound healing and Alzheimer's. Various studies have shown that curcumin has anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardio protective, anti-arthritic, chemo preventive and anti-carcinogenic activities. It may suppress both initiation and progression stages of cancer. Anticancer activity of curcumin is due to negative regulation of inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors, protein kinases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oncogenes. This review focuses on the different targets of curcumin to treat cancer.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016 ;17(6):2735-9. PMID: 27356682


Honokiol targets mitochondria to halt cancer progression and metastasis.

Cancer continues to be the leading cause of death worldwide. Plants have a long history of use in the treatment of cancer. Honokiol (HNK) is an important bioactive compound found in the bark of Magnolia tree, and has been shown to inhibit cancer growth and metastasis in many cell types in vitro and in animal models. Resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the major obstacle for cure of cancer. Combination of HNK with many traditional chemotherapeutic drugs as well as radiation sensitizes cancer cells to apoptotic death, suggesting that HNK not only directly inhibits primary cancers and metastasis, but also has potential to overcome drug resistance. Ultimately, this may mean that HNK could be combined with traditional chemotherapies administered at lower doses to significantly reduce toxicity, meanwhile enhance efficacy. As a natural compound, HNK is composed of polyphenols and has been described in many studies targeting multiple key cell signaling molecules. Mitochondria are the main hub for cellular energy production and play an important role in cell survival, and are the key target identified for HNK to mediate cancer cell death, survival, and metastasis. In this review, we have summarized different aspects of HNK's anti-cancer effects from recent accumulated literature, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. This review is primarily focused on the effects of HNK on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling, as well as the broader regulation of mitochondrial function and cancer cell metabolism.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Jun ;60(6):1383-95. Epub 2016 May 6. PMID: 27276215


Magnolol and polyphenol mixture remarkably induced cell apoptosis by arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase.

Histone modifications play critical roles in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for almost 85% of all diagnosed lung cancers. Magnolol and polyphenol mixture (PM) derived from Magnolia officinalis exhibited remarkable antitumor activities in lung cancer. However, the epigenetic effects and molecular mechanisms of magnolol and PM in NSCLC have yet to be reported. In this study, the epigenetic effects of magnolol and PM in NSCLC were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results revealed that magnolol and PM significantly suppressed the expression levels and function of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). In A549 and H1299 cells, magnolol and PM remarkably induced cell apoptosis by arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase while simultaneously activating various pro-apoptotic signals, including TRAIL-R2 (DR5), Bax, caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, and cleaved PARP. However, these apoptosis-promoting effects could be attenuated by TSA, which is a specific class I HDACs inhibitor. ChIP assays also demonstrated that magnolol and PM significantly enriched the histone acetyl mark (H3K27ac) in the promoter region of DR5. In A549 xenograft model, magnolol and PM notably reduced tumor growth by 44.40% and 35.40%, respectively. Therefore, magnolol and PM, as potential inhibitors of class I HDACs, induced tumor cell apoptosis and suppressed tumor growth partially by epigenetically activating DR5, which is a key protein in death receptor signaling pathway.

Pharmacol Res. 2016 Jun 3 ;111:113-125. Epub 2016 Jun 3. PMID: 27268146


These results suggest that curcumin induced the apoptosis of Y79 cells through the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

Curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound present in turmeric (Curcuma longa), exerts antitumor effects in various types of malignancy. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the effects of curcumin on retinoblastoma (RB) cells have not been fully explored. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin exerts its anticancer effects in RB Y79 cells were investigated. The results showed that curcumin reduced cell viability in Y79 cells. Curcumin induced G1 phase arrest through downregulating the expression of cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2/6 and upregulating the expression of CDK inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Curcumin-induced apoptosis of Y79 cells occurred through the activation of caspases-9/-3. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis showed that curcumin induced mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) collapse in Y79 cells. We also found that curcumin induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors significantly suppressed curcumin‑induced activation of caspases-9/-3 and inhibited the apoptosis of Y79 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin induced the apoptosis of Y79 cells through the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings provide a novel treatment strategy for human RB.

Int J Mol Med. 2016 Jul 13. Epub 2016 Jul 13. PMID: 27432244


Rosehip extracts are a powerful antioxidant that produces an antiproliferative effect in Caco-2 cells.

The in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of different fractions of Rosa canina hips on human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2) was studied. The compounds tested were total extract (fraction 1), vitamin C (fraction 2), neutral polyphenols (fraction 3) and acidic polyphenols (fraction 4). All the extracts showed high cytotoxicity after 72 h, both low and high concentrations. The flow cytometric analysis revealed that all the fractions produce disturbances in the cell cycle resulting in a concomitant cell death by an apoptotic pathway. Changes in the redox status of Caco-2 cells in response to Rosa canina hips were determined. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide in presence of plant fractions and the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was significantly decreased. Therefore, our data demonstrate that rosehip extracts are a powerful antioxidant that produces an antiproliferative effect in Caco-2 cells. Therefore, these results predict a promising future for Rosa canina as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this natural plant could be an effective component of functional foods addressed towards colorectal carcinoma.

PLoS One. 2016 ;11(7):e0159136. Epub 2016 Jul 28. PMID: 27467555


Cocoa catechins and procyanidins are cytotoxic to epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

Over the last four centuries, cocoa and chocolate have been described as having potential medicinal value. As of today, Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) and its products are consumed worldwide. They are of great research interest because of the concentration dependent antioxidant as well as pro-oxidant properties of some of their polyphenolic constituents, specially procyanidins and flavan-3-ols such as catechin. This study was aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular changes associated with cytotoxicity, caused due pro-oxidant activity of cocoa catechins and procyanidins, in ovarian cancer cell lines. Extract of non-alkalized cocoa powder enriched with catechins and procyanidins was used to treat human epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines OAW42 and OVCAR3 at various concentrations≤1000μg/mL. The effect of treatment on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels was determined. Apoptotic cell death, post treatment, was evaluated microscopically and using flow cytometry by means of annexin-propidium iodide (PI) dual staining. Levels of active caspase-3 as a pro-apoptotic marker and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) as an invasive potential marker were detected using Western blotting and gelatin zymography. Treatment with extract caused an increase in intracellular ROS levels in OAW42 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Bright field and fluorescence microscopy of treated cells revealed apoptotic morphology and DNA damage. Increase in annexin positive cell population and dose dependent upregulation of caspase-3 confirmed apoptotic cell death. pro-MMP2 was found to be downregulated in a dose dependent manner in cells treated with the extract. Treated cells also showed areduction in MMP2 activity. Our data suggests that cocoa catechins and procyanidins are cytotoxic to epithelial ovarian cancer, inducing apoptotic morphological changes, DNA damage and caspase-3 mediated cell death. Downregulation of pro-MMP2 and reduction in active MMP2 levels imply a decrease in invasive potential of the cells. Apoptosis and MMP2 downregulation appear to be linked to the increase in intracellular ROS levels, caused due to the prooxidant effect of cocoa procyanidin extract.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Jun 24 ;83:130-140. Epub 2016 Jun 24. PMID: 27470560


Curcumin as a MicroRNA Regulator in Cancer: A Review.

Curcumin is a natural dietary polyphenol for which anti-tumor effects have been documented. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of curcumin, along with its immunomodulatory, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic properties, are often referred to as the main mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects. At the molecular level, inhibition of NF-kB, Akt/PI3K, and MAPK pathways and enhancement of p53 are among the most important anticancer alterations induced by curcumin. Recent evidence has suggested that epigenetic alterations are also involved in the anti-tumor properties of curcumin. Among these curcumin-induced epigenetic alterations is modulation of the expression of several oncogenic and tumor suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs). Suppression of oncomiRs such as miR-21, miR-17-5p, miR-20a, and miR-27a and over-expression of miR-34 a/c and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-suppressor miRNAs are among the most important effects of curcumin on miRNA homeostasis. The present review will summarize the findings of in vitro and experimental studies on the impact of curcumin and its analogues on the expression of miRNAs involved in different stages of tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, and chemo-resistance.

Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2016 Jul 23. Epub 2016 Jul 23. PMID: 27457236


There is strong evidence from cell models which demonstrates that olive polyphenols may inhibit the progression and development of cancer.

The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regardingbioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

Nutrients. 2016;8(8). Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27548217


Salvianolic Acid A is a novel anti-cancer candidate through targeting ETAR.

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) autocrine and paracrine signaling modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells by activating its receptors, endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR). Dysregulation of ETAR activation promotes tumor development and progression. The potential of ETAR antagonists and the dual-ETAR and ETBR antagonists as therapeutic approaches are under preclinical and clinical studies. Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which has been reported as an anti-cancer and cardio-protective herbal medicine. In this study, we demonstrate that Sal A inhibits ETAR activation induced by ET-1 in both recombinant and endogenous ETAR expression cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 5.7µM in the HEK293/ETAR cell line and 3.14 µM in HeLa cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that Sal A suppressed cell proliferation and extended the doubling times of multiple cancer cells, including HeLa, DU145, H1975, and A549 cell lines. In addition, Sal A inhibited proliferationof DU145 cell lines stimulated by exogenous ET-1 treatment. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and cardio-toxicity of Sal A were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which proved that Sal A demonstrates no cytotoxicity or cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that Sal A is a novel anti-cancer candidate through targeting ETAR.

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 ;17(8). Epub 2016 Aug 2. PMID: 27490540


Polyphenols have been shown to be effective against multiple targets in cancer development and progression.

Polyphenols, found abundantly in plants, display many anticarcinogenic properties including their inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inflammation as well as inducing apoptosis. In addition, they can modulate immune system response and protect normal cells against free radicals damage. Most investigations on anticancer mechanisms of polyphenols were conducted with individual compounds. However, several studies, including ours, have indicated that anti-cancer efficacy and scope of action can be further enhanced by combining them synergistically with chemically similar or different compounds. While most studies investigated the anti-cancer effects of combinations of two or three compounds, we used more comprehensive mixtures of specific polyphenols and mixtures of polyphenols with vitamins, amino acids and other micronutrients. The mixture containing quercetin, curcumin, green tea, cruciferex, and resveratrol (PB) demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Fanconi anemia head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 secretion, cell migration and invasion through Matrigel. PB was found effective in inhibition of fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and melanoma A2058 cell proliferation, MMP-2 and -9 expression, invasion through Matrigel and inducing apoptosis, important parameters for cancer prevention. A combination of polyphenols (quercetin and green tea extract) with vitamin C, amino acids and other micronutrients (EPQ) demonstrated significant suppression of ovarian cancer ES-2 xenograft tumor growth and suppression of ovarian tumor growth and lung metastasis from IP injection of ovarian cancer A-2780 cells. The EPQ mixture without quercetin (NM) also has shown potent anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro in a few dozen cancer cell lines by inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis, MMP-2 and -9 secretion, invasion, angiogenesis, and cell growth as well as induction of apoptosis. The presence of vitamin C, amino acids and other micronutrients could enhance inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on secretion of MMPs. In addition, enrichment of NM with quercetin (EPQ mix) enhanced anticancer activity of NM in vivo. In conclusion, polyphenols, especially in combination with other polyphenols or micronutrients, have been shown to be effective against multiple targets in cancer development and progression, and should be considered as safe and effective approaches in cancer prevention and therapy.

Nutrients. 2016;8(9). Epub 2016 Sep 9. PMID: 27618095


These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity.

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, with this aim, the present study was designed to determine the effect of EGCG on mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells differentiation into adipocytes. To understand this process, the cells were incubated with varying concentrations of EGCG (1μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, 50 μM) in the presence and /or absence of adipogenic medium for 9 days. The results demonstrated that, EGCG inhibited the cells proliferation, migration and also prevented their differentiation to adipogenic lineage. These effects were analyzed through the inhibition of wound healing activity, reduction in Oil red O stained cells, together with decrease in the expression of Adipisin gene following EGCG treatment. These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity.

J Stem Cells Regen Med. 2016 ;12(1):16-24. Epub 2016 May 30. PMID: 27397998


At least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily appear protective against breast cancer recurrence.

Evidence from numerous observational and clinical studies suggest that polyphenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids in olive oil, flavonols in tea, chocolate and grapes, and isoflavones in soy products reduce the risk of breast cancer. A dietary food pattern naturally rich in polyphenols is the Mediterranean diet and evidence suggests those of Mediterranean descent have a lower breast cancer incidence. Whilst dietary polyphenols have been the subject of breast cancer risk-reduction, this review will focus on the clinical effects of polyphenols on reducing recurrence. Overall, we recommend breast cancer patients consume a diet naturally high in flavonol polyphenols including tea, vegetables (onion, broccoli), and fruit (apples, citrus). At least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily appear protective. Moderate soy protein consumption (5-10 g daily) and the Mediterranean dietary pattern show the most promise for breast cancer patients. In this review, we present an overview of clinical trials on supplementary polyphenols of dietary patterns rich in polyphenols on breast cancer recurrence, mechanistic data, and novel delivery systems currently being researched.

Nutrients. 2016 ;8(9). Epub 2016 Sep 6. PMID: 27608040


Quercus Suber L. Cork Extracts Induce Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukaemia HL-60 Cells.

Quercus suber L. cork contains a diversity of phenolic compounds, mostly low molecular weight phenols. A rising number of reports support with convergent findings that polyphenols evoke pro-apoptotic events in cancerous cells. However, the literature related to the anti-cancer bioactivity of Q. suber L. cork extractives (QSE) is still limited. Herein, we aim to describe the antitumor potential displayed by cork extractives obtained by different extraction methods in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. In order to quantify the effects of QSE on cancer cells viability, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle were evaluated. The results indicated that the QSE present a time-dependent and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. Such a noxious effect leads these leukaemia cells to their deaththrough apoptotic processes by altering the mitochondrial outer membrane potential, activating caspase-3 and externalizing phosphatidylserine. However, cells cycle progression was not affected by the treatments. This study contributes to open a new way to use this natural resource by exploiting itsanti-cancer properties. Moreover, it opens new possibilities of application of cork by-products, being more efficient in the sector of cork-based agriculture. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley&Sons, Ltd.

Phytother Res. 2015 Aug ;29(8):1180-7. Epub 2015 Jun 5. PMID: 26052936


Theaflavins suppress the growth and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

Theaflavins, the major black tea polyphenols, have been reported to exhibit promising antitumor activities in several human cancers. However, the role of theaflavins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. In this study, we found that theaflavins could significantly inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induce apoptosis in HCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, we found that theaflavins inhibited the growth and metastasis of HCC in an orthotopic model and a lung metastasis model. Immunohistochemical analyses and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assays showed that theaflavins could suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in vivo. Theaflavins also suppressed constitutive and inducible signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. The downstream proteins regulated by STAT3, including the antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Survivin) and the invasion-related proteins (MMP-2, MMP-9), were also downregulated after theaflavins treatment. Theaflavins induced apoptosis by activating the caspase pathway. Together, our results suggest that theaflavins suppress the growth and metastasis of human HCC through the blockage of the STAT3 pathway, and thus may act as potential therapeutic agents for HCC.

Onco Targets Ther. 2016 ;9:4265-75. Epub 2016 Jul 14. PMID: 27478384


This study highlights the chemo-preventive and chemo-sensitizing role of curcumin in leukemia cells.

Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound isolated from the rhizomes of an herbaceous perennial plant, Curcuma longa, is known to possess anticancerous activity. However, the mechanism of apoptosis induction in cancers differs. In this study, we have (1) investigated the anticancerous activity of curcumin on REH and RS4;11 leukemia cells and (2) studied the chemo-sensitizing potential of curcumin for doxorubicin, a drug presently used for leukemia treatment. It was found that curcumin induced a dose dependent decrease in cell viability because of apoptosis induction as visualized by annexin V-FITC/ PI staining. Curcumin-induced apoptosis of leukemia cells was mediated by PARP-1 cleavage. An increased level of caspase-3, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), cleaved PARP-1 and decreased level of Bcl2 was observed in leukemia cells after 24h of curcumin treatment. In addition, curcumin at doses lower than the IC50 value significantly enhanced doxorubicin induced cell death. Therefore, we conclude that curcumin induces apoptosis in leukemia cells via PARP-1 mediated caspase-3 dependent pathway and further may act as a potential chemo-sensitizing agent for doxorubicin. Our study highlights the chemo-preventive and chemo-sensitizing role of curcumin.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016 ;17(8):3865-9. PMID: 27644631


This review summarizes the epigenetic mechanisms by which active compounds from Chinese herbs exert their anti-cancer effect.

Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modification, and other patterns. These processes are associated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Thus, epigenetic modification-related enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), histone demethylases (HDMTs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), and histone deacetylases (HDACs), as well as some related proteins, including methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBPs) and DNMT1-associated protein (DMAP 1), are considered as potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy. Numerous natural compounds, mainly derived from Chinese herbs and chemically ranging from polyphenols and flavonoids to mineral salts, inhibit the growth and development of various cancers by targeting multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes the epigenetic mechanisms by which active compounds from Chinese herbs exert their anti-cancer effect. A subset of these compounds, such as curcumin and resveratrol, affect multiple epigenetic processes, including DNMT inhibition, HDAC inactivation, MBP suppression, HAT activation, and microRNA modulation. Other compounds also regulate epigenetic modification processes, but the underlying mechanisms and clear targets remain unknown. Accordingly, further studies are required.

Pharmacol Res. 2016 Sep 30. Epub 2016 Aug 30. PMID: 27697644


Punicalagin may have cancer-chemopreventive as well as cancer-chemotherapeutic effects against human ovarian cancer.

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of punicalagin, a polyphenol isolated from Punica granatum, on human A2780 ovarian cancer cells in vitro.METHODS: The viability of human A2780 ovarian cells was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell cycle was detected with flow cytometry analysis. The protein expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax,β-catenin, cyclin D1, survivin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2, and TIMP-3 were measured using Western blot analysis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity was determined with gelatin zymography. Wound healing assay was used to determine cell migration.RESULTS: Punicalagin inhibited the cell viability of A2780 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the cell cycle of A2780 cells was arrested in G1/S phase transition. The treatment also induced apoptosis as shown by the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. On the other hand, punicalagin treatment increased the expressions of TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, decreased the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibited cell migration. In addition, theβ-catenin pathway was suppressed as shown by the down-regulations of β-catenin and its downstream factors including cyclin D1 and survivin.CONCLUSIONS: Punicalagin may have cancer-chemopreventive as well as cancer-chemotherapeutic effects against human ovarian cancer in humans through the inhibition ofβ-catenin signaling pathway.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in anyway or used commercially.

Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2016 Aug 19. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27540692


A review of the absorption and metabolism process of EGCG and its anti-cancer effect in vitro and in vivo.

Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world, especially in Asian countries. Consumption of green tea has been demonstrated to possess many health benefits, which mainly attributed to the main bioactive compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a flavone-3-ol polyphenol, in green tea. EGCG is mainly absorbed in the intestine, and gut microbiota play a critical role in its metabolism prior to absorption. EGCG exhibits versatile bioactivities, with its anti-cancer effect most attracting due to the cancer preventive effect of green tea consumption, and a great number of studies intensively investigated its anti-cancer effect. In this review, we therefore, first stated the absorption and metabolism process of EGCG, and then summarized its anti-cancer effect in vitro and in vivo, including its manifold anti-cancer actions and mechanisms, especially its anti-cancer stem cell effect, and next highlighted its various molecular targets involved in cancer inhibition. Finally, the anti-cancer effect of EGCG analogs and nanoparticles, as well as the potential cancer promoting effect of EGCG were also discussed. Understanding of the absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of EGCG can be of importance to better utilize it as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Sep 19:0. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27645804


Activation of autophagic flux by epigallocatechin gallate mitigates TRAIL-induced tumor cell apoptosis.

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea. Recent studies have reported that EGCG can inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis and activate autophagic flux in cancer cells. However, the mechanism behind these processes is unclear. The present study found that EGCG prevents tumor cell death by antagonizing the TRAIL pathway and activating autophagy flux. Our results indicate that EGCG dose-dependently inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis and decreases the binding of death receptor 4 and 5 (DR4 and 5) to TRAIL. In addition, EGCG activates autophagy flux, which is involved in the inhibition of TRAIL cell death. We confirmed that the protective effect of EGCG can be reversed using genetic and pharmacological tools through re-sensitization to TRAIL. The inhibition of autophagy flux affects not only the re-sensitization of tumor cells to TRAIL, but also the restoration of death receptor proteins. This study demonstrates that EGCG inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the manipulation of autophagic flux and subsequent decrease in number of death receptors. On the basis of these results, we suggest further consideration of the use of autophagy activators such as EGCG in combination anti-tumor therapy with TRAIL.

Oncotarget. 2016 Aug 25. Epub 2016 Aug 25. PMID: 27582540


Ellagic acid may exert a broader spectrum of health benefits than has been demonstrated to date.

Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, including berries, pomegranates, grapes, and walnuts. EA has been investigated extensively because of its antiproliferative action in some cancers, along with its anti-inflammatory effects. A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of EA is effective in attenuating obesity and ameliorating obesity-mediated metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis. In this review, we summarize how intake of EA regulates lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and delineate the potential mechanisms of action of EA on obesity-mediated metabolic complications. We also discuss EA as an epigenetic effector, as well as a modulator of the gut microbiome, suggesting that EA may exert a broader spectrum of health benefits than has been demonstrated to date. Therefore, this review aims to suggest the potential metabolic benefits of consumption of EA-containing fruits and nuts against obesity-associated health conditions.

Adv Nutr. 2016 Sep ;7(5):961-72. Epub 2016 Aug 15. PMID: 27633111


Gallic acid is effective in the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cell line.

Leukemia is known as the world's fifth most prevalent cancer. New cytotoxic drugs have created considerable progress in the treatment, but side effects are still the important cause of mortality. Plant derivatives have been recently considered as important sources for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxyphenolic compound with a wide range of biological functions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GA on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of a lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. Jurkat cell (C121) line was cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS) with different concentrations of GA (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100μM) for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The effect of GA on cell viability was measured using MTS assay. Induction of apoptosis was evaluated with Annexin V-FITC/PI kit and flow cytometry. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. Decline of cell viability to less than 50% was observed at 60.3±1.6, 50.9±1.5, and 30.9±2.8 μM concentration after 24, 48, and 72 hours incubation, respectively. All concentrations of GA (10, 30, 50 and 80 μM) enhanced apoptosis compared to the control (P

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 Nov ;41(6):525-530. PMID: 27853333


These results demonstrate the existence of two conflicting pathways in silibinin-induced death of MCF-7 cells.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play important roles in regulating cell survival and death. Silibinin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from milk thistle with anti-tumor activities, but it was found to induce cytoprotective ROS/RNS in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, treatment with silibinin down-regulates ERα expression in MCF-7 cells, and inducing both autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we explored the relationship between ER-associated pathways and RNS/ROS in MCF-7 cells. We also investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the reciprocal regulation between ROS/RNS levels and autophagy in the death signaling pathways in silibinin-treated MCF-7 cells. Silibinin (100-300 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased ROS/RNS generation in MCF-7 cells (with high expression of ERα and low expression of ERβ) and MDA-MB-231 cells (with low expression of ERα and high expression of ERβ). Scavenging ROS/RNS significantly enhanced silibinin-induced death of MCF-7 cells, but not MDA-MB231 cells. Pharmacological activation or blockade of ERα in MCF-7 cells significantly enhanced or decreased, respectively, silibinin-induced ROS/RNS generation, whereas activation or block of ERβ had no effect. Insilibinin-treated MCF-7 cells, exposure to the ROS/RNS donators decreased the autophagic levels, whereas inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA significantly increased ROS/RNS levels. We further showed that increases in ROS/RNS generation, ERα activation or autophagy down-regulation had protective rolesin silibinin-treated MCF-7 cells. Under a condition of ERα activation, scavenging ROS/RNS or stimulating autophagy enhanced the cytotoxicity of silibinin. These results demonstrate the existence of two conflicting pathways in silibinin-induced death of MCF-7 cells: one involves the down-regulationof ERα and thereby augmenting the pro-apoptotic autophagy downstream, leading to cell death; the other involves the up-regulation of pro-survival ROS/RNS; and that the generation of ROS/RNS and autophagy form a negative feedback loop whose balance is regulated by ERα.

Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2016 Nov 21. Epub 2016 Nov 21. PMID: 27867187


The indirect removal of UVB damaged keratinocytes by herbal tea extracts via apoptosis may find application in the prevention of photo-induced inflammation.

Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is one of the major predisposing risk factors of skin cancer. The anticancer and photoprotective effects of unoxidized rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia) herbal teas, containing high levels of dihydrochalones and xanthones, respectively, have been demonstrated in skin cancer models in vivo. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of methanol and aqueous extracts of these herbal teas were investigated in a UVB/HaCaT keratinocyte model with intracellular interleukin-1α (icIL-1α) accumulation as a biomarker. Extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis) served as benchmark. Both extracts of green tea and rooibos, as well as the aqueous extract of C. intermedia, enhanced UVB-induced inhibition of cell viability, proliferation and induction of apoptosis, facilitatingthe removal of icIL-1α. The underlying mechanisms may involve mitochondrial dysfunction exhibiting pro-oxidant responses via polyphenol-iron interactions. The methanol extracts of honeybush, however, protected against UVB-induced reduction of cell growth parameters, presumably via antioxidant mechanisms that prevented the removal of highly inflamed icIL-1α-containing keratinocytes via apoptosis. The dual antioxidant and/or pro-oxidant role of the polyphenolic herbal tea constituents should be considered in developing preventive strategies against UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. The indirect removal of UVB damaged keratinocytes by herbal tea extracts via apoptosis may find application in the prevention of photo-induced inflammation.

Molecules. 2016 Oct 2 ;21(10). Epub 2016 Oct 2. PMID: 27706097


A review of curcumin as a multifaceted compound against human papilloma virus infection and cervical cancers

Curcumin, the bioactive polyphenolic ingredient of turmeric, has been extensively studied for its effects on human papilloma virus (HPV) infection as well as primary and malignant squamous cervical cancers. HPV infections, especially those related to HPV 16 and 18 types, have been established as the leading cause of cervical cancer; however, there are also additional contributory factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of cervical cancers. Curcumin has emerged as having promising chemopreventive and anticancer effects against both HPV-related and nonrelated cervical cancers. In this review, we first discuss the biological relevance of curcumin and both its pharmacological effects and pharmaceutical considerations from a chemical point of view. Next, the signaling pathways that are modulated by curcumin and are relevant to the elimination of HPV infection and treatment of cervical cancer are discussed. We also present counter arguments regarding the effects of curcumin on signaling pathways and molecular markers dysregulated by benzo(a)pyrene (Bap), a carcinogen found in pathological cervical lesions of women who smoke frequently, and estradiol, as two important risk factors involved in persistent HPV-infection and cervical cancer. Finally, various strategies to enhance the pharmacological activity and pharmacokinetic characteristics of curcumin are discussed with examples of studies in experimental models of cervical cancer.© 2016 BioFactors, 2016.

Biofactors. 2016 Nov 29. Epub 2016 Nov 29. PMID: 27896883


EGCG exerts significant anti-proliferative effects against renal cell cancer and malignant melanoma cells in vitro.

: e22101 Background: GTE and Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in GTE, have been shown to exert inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis; modulatory effects on tumor proliferation and differentiation; and immunomodulatory effects on tumor immunity in different pre-clinical models. These pluripotent effects suggest that GTE may have clinical activity that could be exploited for treatment of chemo-insensitive but immunologically responsive tumors. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of EGCG on the proliferation and immunologic sensitivity of human renal cell cancer (RCC) and malignant melanoma (MM) cell lines.METHODS: Human RCC (769-P) and MM (A375) cell lines were tested following incubation in media± 21.8μM EGCG, a pharmacologically-achievable concentration produced by 8, 200mg capsules GTE daily. Tumor proliferation was assessed by MTS assay; lytic sensitivity to IL2-activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (IL2PBL) by (51)Chromium release assay; and gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR assay.RESULTS: EGCG produced significant inhibition of proliferation of both RCC and MM cells (61.5% and 67.3% of media control values respectively; p

J Clin Oncol. 2009 May 20 ;27(15_suppl):e22101. PMID: 27963498


A pinecone water extract induced apoptosis associated with caspase-3 activation in A549, H1264, H1299, and Calu-6 lung cancer cells.

Pinecones from Pinus koraiensis Siebold&Zucc. (Pinaceae), which have historically been treated as an undesired waste by-product in the processing of seeds, have recently been shown to contain ingredients with potent biological activities, such as polyphenols exhibiting anti-tumor activity. With this study, we seek to broaden our understanding of anti-tumor compounds contained in these pinecones beyond just polyphenols. We found that the water extract of P. koraiensis pinecones exhibits significant anti-cancer activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.62 to 1.73 mg/mL in four human lung cancer cell lines, A549, H1264, H1299, and Calu-6, irrespective of their p53 status. We also demonstrate that pinecone water extract induces apoptosis associated with caspase-3 activation in the same cancer cell lines. Chemical investigation of the pinecone water extract revealed eight main components (1-8), and their structures were identified as dehydroabietic acid (1), 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietic acid (2), 7β,15-dihydroxydehydroabietic acid (3), β-D-glucopyranosyl labda-8(17,13)-diene-(15,16)-lactone-19-oate (4), 7α,15-dihydroxydehydroabietic acid (5), (1S,2S,4R)-(+)-limonene-1,2-diol (6), sobrerol (7), and 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (8). These findings suggest a novel biological application of P. koraiensis pinecones in combatting human lung cancer, and further identify the major compounds that could contribute to this anti-cancer activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Chem Biodivers. 2016 Dec 27. Epub 2016 Dec 27. PMID: 28027428


P. eldarica could be considered as a potential cytotoxic candidate.

Several attempts have so far been made in the search of new anticancer agents of plant origin. Some studies have reported that different species of Pine genus possess cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of Pinus eldarica bark and leaf extracts or leaf essential oil on HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cell lines. Hydroalcoholic and phenolic extracts and the essential oil of plant were prepared. Total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Cytotoxic activity of the extracts and essential oil against HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The polyphenolic content of hydroalcoholic and phenolic extracts of the bark and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf were 48.31%, 47.2%, and 8.47%, respectively. According to the GC-MS analysis, the major components of the leaf oil of P. eldarica were:β -caryophyllene (14.8%), germacrene D (12.9%), α-terpinenyl acetate (8.15%), α -pinene (5.7%), and -α humulene (5.9%). Bark extracts and leaf essential oil of P. eldarica significantly reduced the viability of both HeLa and MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. However, leaf extractshowed less inhibitory effects against both cell lines. The essential oil of P. eldarica was more cytotoxic than its hydroalcoholic and phenolic extracts. The terpenes and phenolic compounds were probably responsible for cytotoxicity of P. eldarica. Therefore, P. eldarica might have a good potentialfor active anticancer agents.

Res Pharm Sci. 2016 Dec ;11(6):476-483. PMID: 28003841


Curcumin is a potentially powerful tool to reverse cisplatin-induced toxicity.

Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol isolated from Curcuma longa that has gained considerable interest over the last decades due to its beneficial effects for human health. Moreover, the usage of cisplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic, is associated with several adverse effects affecting the quality of life of the patients. Also, cisplatin therapy is jeopardized by a great challenge of resistance which reduces the efficacy of this drug. In order to conquer these dark sides of cisplatin therapy, curcumin has been widely used to fight against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells and decrease its unwanted side effects (e.g. ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity). In this review, we provide a summary of the studies done to show the protective effects of curcumin against cisplatin failure and toxicity.

Pharmacol Res. 2016 Dec 29. Epub 2016 Dec 29. PMID: 28042086

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2018, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.