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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

Abstract Title:

Low vitamin D is associated with negative and depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders.

Abstract Source:

Schizophr Res. 2016 Aug 29. Epub 2016 Aug 29. PMID: 27595553

Abstract Author(s):

Mari Nerhus, Akiah O Berg, Levi R Kvitland, Ingrid Dieset, Sigrun Hope, Sandra R Dahl, Melissa A Weibell, Kristin L Romm, Ann Faerden, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle

Article Affiliation:

Mari Nerhus

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: There are indications that low S-25(OH)D is associated with increased disease severity in psychotic disorder. Our first aim was to investigate the relations between low S-25(OH)D and positive, negative and depressive symptoms. Our second aim was to explore if associations between S-25(OH)D and symptoms were influenced by levels of inflammatory markers.

METHODS: Participants (N=358) with a medical history of one or more psychotic episodes were recruited. Current symptomatology was assessed by The Structured Interview for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scaleanalyzed by a five-factor model. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia was used to assess depression and suicidal ideation. Blood samples were analyzed for S-25(OH)D, CRP, sTNF-R1, IL-Ra and OPG. We performed bivariate correlations and multiple regression models to evaluate the effect of S-25(OH)D on the outcomes.

RESULTS: Low S-25(OH)D was significantly associated with negative symptoms (adjusted R(2)=0.113, F(6,357)=8.58, p<0.001) and with depression (adjusted R(2)=0.045, F(4,357)=5.233, p<0.001) when adjusting for possible confounding factors (i.e. gender, education, diagnose, hospitalization status, ethnicity, season and thyroid status). CRP was correlated with both S-25(OH)D (rho=-0.13, p=0.02) and negative symptoms (rho=0.14, p=0.01), but did not act as a mediator. The correlations between S-25(OH)D and the inflammatory markers sTNF-R1, IL-Ra and OPG were not significant.

CONCLUSION: There is a strong association between low S-25(OH)D and higher negative and depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. Randomized controlled trials should be performed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjuvant treatment strategy in patients with prominent negative or depressive symptoms.

Study Type : Human Study

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Sayer Ji
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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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