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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Induction of apoptosis by a hexane extract of aged black garlic in the human leukemic U937 cells.

Abstract Source:

Nutr Res Pract. 2014 Apr ;8(2):132-7. Epub 2014 Mar 28. PMID: 24741395

Abstract Author(s):

Cheol Park, Sejin Park, Yoon Ho Chung, Gi-Young Kim, Young Whan Choi, Byung Woo Kim, Yung Hyun Choi

Article Affiliation:

Cheol Park

Abstract:

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this study, the apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) were investigated in human leukemic U937 cells.

MATERIALS/METHODS: Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide) assay. Apoptosis was detected using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay.

RESULTS: Exposure to HEABG was found to result in a concentration- and time-dependent growth inhibition by induction of apoptosis, which was associated with an up-regulation of death receptor 4 and Fas legend, and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HEABG induced the activation of caspase-9, an initiator caspase of the mitochodrial mediated intrinsic pathway, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. HEABG also induced apoptosis via a death receptor mediated extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation, resulting in the truncation of Bid, and suggesting the existence of cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, pre-treatment of U937 cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, significantly blocked the HEABG-induced apoptosis of these cells, and increased the survival rate of HEABG-treated cells, confirming that HEABG-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase cascade.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the overall results, we suggest that HEABG reduces leukemic cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, implying its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of leukemia.

Study Type : In Vitro Study

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Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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