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Abstract Title:

Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes.

Abstract Source:

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008 Jan-Feb;24(1):59-63. PMID: 17607660

Abstract Author(s):

David P Funda, Anne Kaas, Helena Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Karsten Buschard

Article Affiliation:

Division of Immunology and Gnotobiology, Institute of Microbiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic. funda@biomed.cas.cz

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice.

METHODS: Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals.

RESULTS: A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p<0.0001) was observed in NOD mice fed gluten-free diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n = 33). Surprisingly, gluten+ diet also prevented diabetes incidence, even at the level found with the gluten-free diet (p<0.0001, 5.9%, n = 34). The minority of mice, which developed diabetes on all the three diabetes-protective (gluten+, gluten-free, Pregestimil) diets, did that slightly later compared to those on the standard diet. Lower insulitis score compared to control mice was found in non-diabetic NOD mice on the gluten-free, and to a lesser extent also gluten+ and Pregestimil diets. No substantial differences in the number of CD3(+), TCR-gammadelta(+), and IgA(+) cells in the small intestine were documented.

CONCLUSIONS: Gluten+ diet prevents diabetes in NOD mice at the level found with the non-purified gluten-free diet. Possible mechanisms of the enigmatic, dual effect of dietary gluten on the development of T1D are discussed.

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Sayer Ji
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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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