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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Ginsenoside Re and Rd enhance the expression of cholinergic markers and neuronal differentiation in Neuro-2a cells.

Abstract Source:

Biol Pharm Bull. 2014 ;37(5):826-33. Epub 2014 Mar 5. PMID: 24599032

Abstract Author(s):

Min Soo Kim, Jung Min Yu, Hee Jung Kim, Hae Bok Kim, Seung Tae Kim, Su Kil Jang, Young Wook Choi, Do Ik Lee, Seong Soo Joo

Article Affiliation:

Min Soo Kim

Abstract:

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), extensive neuronal loss and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) are the major characteristics during pathogenesis in the brain. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether representative ginsenosides from ginseng can regulate choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), which are required for cholinergic neurotransmission. Our results revealed that Re and Rd induced effectively the expression of ChAT/VAChT genes in Neuro-2a cells as well as ACh elevation. Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), nerve growth factor receptor (p75), p21, and TrkA genes and proteins were also significantly expressed. Moreover, both activated extracelullar signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and Akt were inhibited by K252a, a selective Trk receptor inhibitor. These findings strongly indicate that Re and Rd play an important role in neuronal differentiation and the nerve growth factor (NGF)-TrkA signaling pathway. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that Re and Rd administered orally were transported successfully into brain tissue and increased the level of ChAT and VAChT mRNA. The present study demonstrates that Re and Rd are selective candidates for upregulation of the expression of cholinergic markers, which may counter the symptoms and progress of AD.

Study Type : In Vitro Study

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Sayer Ji
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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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