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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

Abstract Title:

Dark chocolate improves coronary vasomotion and reduces platelet reactivity.

Abstract Source:

Circulation. 2007 Nov 20;116(21):2376-82. Epub 2007 Nov 5. PMID: 17984375

Abstract Author(s):

Andreas J Flammer, Frank Hermann, Isabella Sudano, Lukas Spieker, Matthias Hermann, Karen A Cooper, Mauro Serafini, Thomas F Lüscher, Frank Ruschitzka, Georg Noll, Roberto Corti

Article Affiliation:

Cardiovascular Center, Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistr 100, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Dark chocolate has potent antioxidant properties. Coronary atherosclerosis is promoted by impaired endothelial function and increased platelet activation. Traditional risk factors, high oxidative stress, and reduced antioxidant defenses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, particularly in transplanted hearts. Thus, flavonoid-rich dark chocolate holds the potential to have a beneficial impact on graft atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate compared with cocoa-free control chocolate on coronary vascular and platelet function in 22 heart transplant recipients in a double-blind, randomized study. Coronary vasomotion was assessed with quantitative coronary angiography and cold pressor testing before and 2 hours after ingestion of 40 g of dark (70% cocoa) chocolate or control chocolate, respectively. Two hours after ingestion of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate, coronary artery diameter was increased significantly (from 2.36+/-0.51 to 2.51+/-0.59 mm, P<0.01), whereas it remained unchanged after control chocolate. Endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion improved significantly after dark chocolate (4.5+/-11.4% versus -4.3+/-11.7% in the placebo group, P=0.01). Platelet adhesion decreased from 4.9+/-1.1% to 3.8+/-0.8% (P=0.04) in the dark chocolate group but remained unchanged in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Dark chocolate induces coronary vasodilation, improves coronary vascular function, and decreases platelet adhesion 2 hours after consumption. These immediate beneficial effects were paralleled by a significant reduction of serum oxidative stress and were positively correlated with changes in serum epicatechin concentration.

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Sayer Ji
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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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