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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

Abstract Title:

Neuroprotective effect of cocoa flavonoids on in vitro oxidative stress.

Abstract Source:

Eur J Nutr. 2009 Feb;48(1):54-61. Epub 2008 Nov 29. PMID: 19043659

Abstract Author(s):

Emma Ramiro-Puig, Gemma Casadesús, Hyoung-gon Lee, Xiongwei Zhu, Andrew McShea, George Perry, Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Mark A Smith, Margarida Castell

Article Affiliation:

Department de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids that, among other functions, can act as antioxidants. In living systems, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate an array of intracellular cascades, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), that are closely associated with cell death or survival pathways. AIM OF THE STUDY: To ascertain the role of a cocoa extract and its main flavonoid, (-)-epicatechin, in an in vitro model of oxidative stress induced in a neuronal cell line. METHODS: We analyzed ROS production by fluorometry (dichlorofluorescein assay), and activation of MAPK pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-38, by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Cells incubated with cocoa extract or (-)-epicatechin, reduced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner, reaching 35% inhibition. pJNK and p38, involved in apoptosis, were down-modulated by cocoa extract and (-)-epicatechin with p38 inhibition reaching up to 70%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that cocoa extract and (-)-epicatechin may exert a neuroprotective action by reducing ROS production and modulating MAPK activation.

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Sayer Ji
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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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