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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats.

Abstract Source:

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016 ;2016:8725354. Epub 2016 Mar 16. PMID: 27069534

Abstract Author(s):

Alfonso Díaz, Samuel Treviño, Jorge Guevara, Guadalupe Muñoz-Arenas, Eduardo Brambila, Blanca Espinosa, Albino Moreno-Rodríguez, Gustavo Lopez-Lopez, Ulises Peña-Rosas, Berenice Venegas, Anabella Handal-Silva, José Luis Morán-Perales, Gonzalo Flores, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso

Article Affiliation:

Alfonso Díaz

Abstract:

Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats.

Study Type : Animal Study

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Sayer Ji
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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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