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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of black chokeberry (L.) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 cells and ICR mice.

Abstract Source:

Nutr Res Pract. 2018 Feb ;12(1):13-19. Epub 2018 Jan 15. PMID: 29399292

Abstract Author(s):

Kang Pa Lee, Nan Hee Choi, Hyun-Soo Kim, Sanghyun Ahn, In-Sik Park, Dea Won Lee

Article Affiliation:

Kang Pa Lee

Abstract:

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: One of the mechanisms considered to be prevalent in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hyper-stimulation of microglia. Black chokeberry (L.) is widely used to treat diabetes and atherosclerosis, and is known to exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; however, its neuroprotective effects have not been elucidated thus far.

MATERIALS/METHODS: We undertook to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of black chokeberry friut (BCE) in BV2 cells, and evaluate its neuroprotective effect in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of AD.

RESULTS: Following stimulation of BV2 cells by LPS, exposure to BCE significantly reduced the generation of nitric oxide as well as mRNA levels of numerous inflammatory factors such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, AD was induced in a mouse model by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (250 µg/kg), subsequent to which we investigated the neuroprotective effects of BCE (50 mg/kg) on brain damage. We observed that BCE significantly reduced tissue damage inthe hippocampus by downregulating iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α levels. We further identified the quinic acids in BCE using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Furthermore, we confirmed the neuroprotective effect of BCE and quinic acid on amyloid beta-induced cell death in rat hippocampal primary neurons.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that black chokeberry has protective effects against the development of AD.

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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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